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about|the autonomous region+ of modern Spain|the medieval Islamic state+ which covered most of Iberia|Al-Andalus|other uses

settlement
Andalusia

Autonomous community+

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Flag of Andalucía

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Coat-of-arms of Andalucía
''Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad''
Andalusia by itself, for Spain, and for humanity
''La bandera blanca y verde+''
English: The white and green flag

Location of Andalusia within Spain.
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region:ES-AN_type:adm1st_source:cawiki
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ES
Country+

Capital+
Seville+
87268
| area_footnotes = (17.2% of Spain)
2nd+
2011
8424102
1st+
Percent
17.84% of Spain
auto
Andalusian
''andaluz'' (m)
''andaluza'' (f)
Ethnic groups+
Demonym+
English+
Andalusian+
Spanish+
Official language+s
Spanish+
Statute of Autonomy
30 December 1981
first revision 2002
second revision 2007
Legislature
Parliament of Andalusia+
Congress+
62 deputies (of 350)
Senate+
40 senators (of 264)
ISO 3166-2+
AN
Junta of Andalusia+
President of the Junta+
Susana Díaz+
PSOE+



'''Andalusia''' (, IPAc-en

Andalusia is in the south of the Iberian peninsula+, immediately south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura+ and Castile–La Mancha+; west of the autonomous community of Murcia+ and the Mediterranean Sea+; east of Portugal+ and the Atlantic Ocean+; and north of the Mediterranean Sea+ and the Strait of Gibraltar+. The small British overseas territory+ of Gibraltar+ shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz+ at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar.

The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena+ and the Baetic System+, consisting of the Subbaetic+ and Penibaetic+ Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin+. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central+. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System+, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression+ of the valley of the Guadalquivir+.

The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic+ word ''Al-Andalus+'' (الأندلس) and this term derives in turn from an older word: Vandalusia or land of the Vandals+. he believed that geographically it referred only to the harbor from which the Vandals departed Iberia for (North) Africa—the location of which harbour was unknown. As well as Muslim+ and Romani+ influences, the region's history and culture have been influenced by the earlier Iberians+, Carthaginians/Phoenicians+, Greeks+, Romans+, Vandals, Visigoths+, Byzantines+, all of whom preceded the Muslims, as well as the Castilian+ and other Christian+ North Iberian nationalities who regained and repopulated the area in the latter phases of the ''Reconquista+''. There was also a relatively large Sephardic Jew+ish presence.

Andalusia has been a traditionally agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe. However, the growth of the community especially in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the eurozone. The region has, however, a rich culture and a strong cultural identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are largely or entirely Andalusian in origin. These include flamenco+, bullfighting+, and certain Moorish-influenced+ architectural styles+.

Andalusia's interior is the hottest area of Europe+, with cities like Córdoba+ and Seville+ averaging above 36 °C (97 °F) in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C (95 °F) up close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C (104 °F) common.



Although its present form is certainly derived from the Arabic, the etymology+ of the name "Andalusia" is disputed, and the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.

In the form of ''Vandalusia'', it was traditionally believed to be derived from the name of the Germanic tribe, the Vandals+, that briefly colonized parts of Iberia from AD 409 to AD 429. This proposal is sometimes associated with the 19th-century historian Reinhart Dozy+, but it predates him and he recognized some of its shortcomings. Although he accepted that ''Al-Andalus'' derived from ''Vandal'', he believed that geographically it referred only to the harbor from which the Vandals departed Iberia for (North) Africa—the location of which harbour was unknown.

The Spanish toponym (place name) ''Andalucía'' (immediate source of the English ''Andalusia'') was introduced into the Spanish language+s in the 13th century AD under the form ''el Andalucía''. The name was adopted to refer those territories still under the Moorish rule until then, and generally south of Castilla Nueva+ and Valencia+, and corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica+ in Latin sources. This was a Castilianization of ''Al-Andalusiya'', the adjectival+ form of the Arabic language ''al-Andalus'', the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of ''al-Andalus'' is itself somewhat debated (see al-Andalus+), but it entered the Arabic language even before such time as this area came under Muslim rule.

Like the Arabic term ''al-Andalus'', in historical contexts the Spanish term ''Andalucía'' or the English term ''Andalusia'' do not necessarily refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today. Initially, the term referred exclusively to territories under Muslim control; later, it was applied to some of the last Iberian territories to be regained from the Muslims, though not always to exactly the same ones. In the ''Estoria de España+'' (also known as the ''Primera Crónica General+'') of Alfonso X of Castile+, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term ''Andalucía'' is used with three different meanings:

# As a literal translation of the Arabic ''al-Ándalus'' when Arabic texts are quoted.
# To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir+ valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada+ and Murcia+. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself ''Rey de Castilla, León y de toda Andalucía'' ("King of Castile, León and all of Andalusia").
# To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley (the Kingdoms of Jaén+, Córdoba+ and Seville+) but ''not'' the Kingdom of Granada. This was the most common significance in the Late Middle Ages+ and Early modern period+.

From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years even after the completion of the ''Reconquista'' due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, and as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada+, a court of last resort+. Still, the reconquest and repopulation of Granada was accomplished largely by people from the four existing Christian kingdoms of Andalusia, and Granada came to be considered a fourth kingdom of Andalusia. The often-used expression "Four Kingdoms of Andalusia+" dates back in Spanish at least to the mid-18th century.




The Andalusian coat of arms shows the figure of Hercules+ and two lion+s between the two pillars of Hercules+ that tradition situates on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar. An inscription below, superimposed on an image of the flag of Andalusia+ reads ''Andalucía por sí, para España y la Humanidad'' ("Andalusia by herself, for Spain and Humanity"). Over the two columns is a semicircular arch in the colors of the flag of Andalusia, with the Latin+ words ''Dominator Hercules Fundator'' superimposed.

The official flag of Andalusia consists of three equal horizontal stripes, colored green, white, and green respectively; the Andalusian coat of arms is superimposed on the central stripe. Its design was overseen by Blas Infante+ and approved in the Assembly of Ronda+ (a 1918 gathering of Andalusian nationalists+ at Ronda+). The green symbolizes hope and union, and the white symbolizes peace and dialogue. Blas Infante considered these to have been the colors most used in regional symbols throughout the region's history. According to him, the green came in particular from the standard+ of the Umayyad Caliphate+ and represented the call for a gathering of the populace. The white symbolized pardon in the Almohad dynasty+, interpreted in European heraldry as parliament or peace. Other writers have justified the colors differently, with some Andalusian nationalists referring to them as the ''Arbonaida'', meaning white-and-green in Mozarabic+, a Romance language+ that was spoken in the region in Muslim times.


The anthem+ of Andalusia was composed by José del Castillo Díaz (director of the Municipal Band of Seville, commonly known as Maestro Castillo) with lyrics by Blas Infante. The music was inspired by ''Santo Dios'', a popular religious song sung at harvest time by peasants and day laborers in the provinces of Málaga, Seville, and Huelva. Blas Infante brought the song to Maestro Castillo's attention; Maestro Castillo adapted and harmonized the traditional melody. The lyrics appeal to the Andalusians to mobilize and demand ''tierra y libertad'' ("land and liberty") by way of agrarian reform+ and a statute of autonomy within Spain.

The Parliament of Andalusia+ voted unanimously in 1983 that the preamble to the Statute of Autonomy+ recognize Blas Infante as the Father of the Andalusian Nation (''Padre de la Patria Andaluza''), which was reaffirmed in the reformed Statute of Autonomy submitted to popular referendum+ 18 February 2007. The preamble of the present 2007 Statute of Autonomy says that Article 2 of the present Spanish Constitution of 1978+ recognizes Andalusia as a nationality+. Later, in its articulation, it speaks of Andalusia as a "historic nationality" (Spanish: ''nacionalidad histórica''). It also

The national holiday, the Día de Andalucía+, is celebrated on 28 February, commemorating the 1980 autonomy referendum. In spite of this, nationalist groups celebrate the holiday on 4 December, commemorating the 1977 demonstrations to demand autonomy.

The honorific title of ''Hijo Predilecto de Andalucía+'' ("Favorite Son of Andalucia") is granted by the Junta of Andalusia to those whose exceptional merits benefited Andalusia, for work or achievements in natural, social, or political science. It is the highest distinction given by the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.

The Sevillian historian Antonio Domínguez Ortiz+ wrote that:



Andalusia has a surface area of , 17.3 percent of the territory of Spain. Andalusia alone is comparable in extent and in the variety of its terrain to any of several of the smaller European countries. To the east is the Mediterranean Sea+; to the west the Atlantic Ocean+; to the north the Sierra Morena+ constitutes the border with the Meseta Central+; to the south, the self-governing+ British overseas territory+ of Gibraltar+ and the Strait of Gibraltar+ separate it from Africa+.




Andalusia sits at a latitude between 36° and 38° 44' N, in the warm-temperate region. In general, it experiences a Mediterranean climate+, with dry summers influenced by the Azores High+, but subject to occasional torrential rains and extremely hot temperatures. In the winter, the tropical anticyclones move south, allowing cold polar fronts to penetrate the region. Still, within Andalusia there is considerable climatic variety. From the extensive coastal plains one may pass to the valley of the Guadalquivir, barely above sea level, then to the highest altitudes in the Iberian peninsula in the peaks of the Sierra Nevada+. In a mere one can pass from the subtropical coast of the province of Granada to the snowy peaks of Mulhacén+. Andalusia also includes both the dry Tabernas Desert+ in the province of Almería and the Sierra de Grazalema Natural Park+ in the province of Cádiz, which experiences Spain's greatest rainfall.

Annual rainfall in the Sierra de Grazalema has been measured as high as in 1963, the highest ever recorded for any location in Iberia. of rain per year.

In general, as one goes from west to east, away from the Atlantic, there is less precipitation. "Wet Andalusia" includes most of the highest points in the region, above all the Sierra de Grazalema but also the Serranía de Ronda+ in western Málaga. The valley of the Guadalquivir has moderate rainfall. The Tabernas Desert+ in Almería, Europe's only true desert, has less than 75 days with any measurable precipitation, and some particular places in the desert have as few as 50 such days. Much of "dry Andalusia" has more than 300 "sunny" days a year.

The average temperature in Andalusia throughout the year is over . Averages in the cities range from in Baeza+ to in Málaga+.
The Guadalquivir valley has experienced the highest temperatures recorded in Europe, with a maximum of recorded at Córdoba and Seville. The mountains of Granada and Jaén have the coldest temperatures in southern Iberia, but do not reach continental extremes (and, indeed are surpassed by some mountains in northern Spain). In the cold snap of January 2005, Santiago de la Espada+ (Jaén) experienced a temperature of convert



Mountain ranges affect climate, the network of rivers, soils and their erosion, bioregions, and even human economies insofar as they rely on natural resources. The Andalusian terrain offers a range of altitudes and slopes. Andalusia has the Iberian peninsula's highest mountains and nearly 15 percent of its terrain over . The picture is similar for areas under (with the Baetic Depression), and for the variety of slopes.

The Atlantic coast is overwhelmingly beach and gradually sloping coasts; the Mediterranean coast has many cliffs, above all in the Malagan Axarquía+ and in Granada and Almería. This asymmetry divides the region naturally into Upper Andalusia (two mountainous areas) and Lower Andalusia (the broad basin of the Guadalquivir).

The Sierra Morena+ separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central+. Although sparsely populated, this is not a particularly high range, and its highest point, the peak of La Bañuela+ in the Sierra Madrona+, lies outside of Andalusia. Within the Sierra Morena, the gorge+ of Despeñaperros+ forms a natural frontier between Castile and Andalusia.

The Baetic Cordillera+ consists of the parallel mountain ranges of the Cordillera Penibética+ near the Mediterranean coast and the Cordillera Subbética+ inland, separated by the Surco Intrabético+. The Cordillera Subbética is quite discontinuous, offering many passes that facilitate transportation, but the Penibético forms a strong barrier between the Mediterranean coast and the interior. The Sierra Nevada, part of the Cordillera Penibética in the Province of Granada, has the highest peaks in Iberia: El Mulhacén+ at and El Veleta+ at .

Lower Andalusia, the Baetic Depression+, the basin of the Guadalquivir, lies between these two mountainous areas. It is a nearly flat territory, open to the Gulf of Cádiz+ in the southeast. Throughout history, this has been the most populous part of Andalusia.


Andalusia has rivers that flow into both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Flowing to the Atlantic are the Guadiana+, Odiel+-Tinto+, Guadalquivir+, Guadalete+, and Barbate+. Flowing to the Mediterranean are the Guadiaro+, Guadalhorce+, Guadalmedina+, Guadalfeo+, Andarax+ (also known as the Almería) and Almanzora+. Of these, the Guadalquivir+ is the longest in Andalusia and fifth longest on the Iberian peninsula, at .


The rivers of the Atlantic basin are characteristically long, run through mostly flat terrain, and have broad river valleys. As a result, at their mouths are estuaries+ and wetland+s, such as the marshes of Doñana+ in the delta of the Guadalquivir, and wetland+s of the Odiel. In contrast, the rivers of the Mediterranean Basin are shorter, more seasonal, and make a precipitous descent from the mountains of the Baetic Cordillera. Their estuaries are small, and their valleys are less suitable for agriculture. Also, being in the rain shadow+ of the Baetic Cordillera means that they receive a lesser volume of water.

The following hydrographic basins can be distinguished in Andalusia. On the Atlantic side are the Guadalquivir basin; the Andalusian Atlantic Basin+ with the sub-basins Guadalete-Barbate and Tinto-Odiel; and the Guadiana basin. On the Mediterranean side is the Andalusian Mediterranean Basin+ and the very upper portion of the basin of the Segura+.

The soils of Andalusia can be divided into three large areas: the Sierra Morena+, Cordillera Subbética+, and the Baetic Depression+ and the Surco Intrabético+.

The Sierra Morena, due to its morphology and the acidic content of its rocks, developed principally relatively poor, shallow soils, suitable only for forests. In the valleys and in some areas where limestone+ is present, deeper soils allowed farming of cereals suitable for livestock. The more complicated morphology of the Baetic Cordillera makes it more heterogeneous, with the most heterogeneous soils in Andalusia. Very roughly, in contrast to the Sierra Morena, a predominance of basic+ (alkaline) materials in the Cordillera Subbética, combined with a hilly landscape, generates deeper soils with greater agricultural capacity, suitable to the cultivation of olives.

Finally, the Baetic Depression and the Surco Intrabético have deep, rich soils, with great agricultural capacity. In particular, the alluvial+ soils of the Guadalquivir+ valley and plain of Granada+ have a loam+y texture and are particularly suitable for intensive irrigated crops. In the hilly areas of the countryside, there is a double dynamic: the depressions have filled with older lime-rich material, developing the deep, rich, dark clay+ soils the Spanish call ''bujeo+'', or ''tierras negras andaluzas'', excellent for dryland farming. In other zones, the whiter ''albariza'' provides an excellent soil for vineyard+s.

Despite their marginal quality, the poorly consolidated soils of the sandy coastline of Huelva and Almería
have been successfully used in recent decades for hothouse cultivation under clear plastic of strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and other fruits.


Biogeographically, Andalusia forms part of the Western Mediterranean subregion of the Mediterranean Basin+, which falls within the Boreal Kingdom+. Five floristic provinces+ lie, in whole or in part, within Andalusia: along much of the Atlantic coast, the Lusitanian-Andalusian littoral or Andalusian Atlantic littoral; in the north, the southern portion of the Luso-Extremaduran floristic province; covering roughly half of the region, the Baetic floristic province; and in the extreme east, the Almerian portion of the Almerian-Murcian floristic province and (coinciding roughly with the upper Segura basin) a small portion of the Castilian-Maestrazgan-Manchegan floristic province. These names derive primarily from past or present political geography: "Luso" and "Lusitanian" from Lusitania+, one of three Roman province+s in Iberia, most of the others from present-day Spanish provinces, and Maestrazgo+ being a historical region of northern Valencia+.


In broad terms, the typical vegetation of Andalusia is Mediterranean woodland+, characterized by leaf+y xerophilic+ perennials+, adapted to the long, dry summers. The dominant species of the climax community+ is the Holly Oak (''Quercus ilex+''). Also abundant are Cork Oak (''Quercus suber+''), various pine+s, and Spanish Fir (''Abies pinsapo+''). Due to cultivation, olive+ (''Olea europaea'') and almond+ (''Prunus dulcis'') trees also abound. The dominant understory+ is composed of thorny and aromatic woody species, such as Rosemary+ (''Rosmarinus officinalis''), Thyme+ (''Thymus''), and ''Cistus+''. In the wettest areas with acidic soils+, the most abundant species are the Oak and Cork Oak, and the cultivated ''Eucalyptus+''. In the woodlands, leafy hardwood+s of genus ''Populus+'' (poplars, aspens, cottonwoods) and ''Ulmus+'' (elms) are also abundant; poplars are cultivated in the plains of Granada.

The Andalusian woodlands have been much altered by human settlement, the use of nearly all of the best land for farming, and frequent wildfire+s. The degraded forests become shrubby and combustible garrigue+. Extensive areas have been planted with non-climax+ trees such as pines. There is now a clear conservation policy for the remaining forests, which survive almost exclusively in the mountains.



The biodiversity+ of Andalusia extends to its fauna as well. More than 400 of the 630 vertebrate species extant in Spain can be found in Andalusia. Spanning the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins, and adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar, Andalusia is on the migratory route of many of the numerous flocks of birds that travel annually from Europe to Africa and back.

The Andalusian wetlands host a rich variety of birds. Some are of African origin, such as the red-knobbed coot+ (''Fulica cristata''), the purple swamphen+ (''Porphyrio porphyrio''), and the greater flamingo+ (''Phoenicopterus roseus''). Others originate in Northern Europe, such as the greylag goose+ (''Anser anser''). Birds of prey+ (raptors) include the Spanish imperial eagle+ (''Aquila adalberti''), the griffon vulture+ (''Gyps fulvus''), and both the black+ and red kite+ (''Milvus migrans'' and ''Milvus milvus'').


Among the herbivore+s, are several deer+ (Cervidae) species, notably the fallow deer+ (''Dama dama'') and roe deer+ (''Capreolus capreolus''); the European mouflon+ (''Ovis orientalis musimon''), a type of sheep; and the Spanish ibex+ (''Capra pyrenaica'', which despite its scientific name is no longer found in the Pyrenees+). The Spanish ibex has recently been losing ground to the Barbary sheep+ (''Ammotragus lervia''), an invasive species+ from Africa, introduced for hunting in the 1970s. Among the small herbivores are rabbits—especially the European rabbit+ (''Oryctolagus cuniculus'')—which form the most important part of the diet of the carnivorous species of the Mediterranean woodlands.

The large carnivore+s such as the Iberian wolf+ (''Canis lupus signatus'') and the Iberian lynx+ (''Lynx pardinus'') are quite threatened, and are limited to the Sierra de Andújar, inside of Sierra Morena, Doñana and Despeñaperros. Stocks of the wild boar+ (''Sus scrofa''), on the other hand, have been well preserved because they are popular with hunters. More abundant and in varied situations of conservation are such smaller carnivores as otter+s, extremely abundant dogs, very abundant foxes, the European badger+ (''Meles meles''), the European polecat+ (''Mustela putorius''), the least weasel+ (''Mustela nivalis''), the wildcat+ (''Felis silvestris''), the common genet+ (''Genetta genetta''), and the Egyptian mongoose+ (''Herpestes ichneumon)''.

Other notable species are ''Acherontia atropos+'' (a variety of death's-head hawkmoth+), ''Vipera latasti+'' (a venomous snake+), and the endemic (and endangered) fish ''Aphanius baeticus+''.


Andalusia has many unique ecosystems. In order to preserve these areas in a manner compatible with both conservation and economic exploitation, many of the most representative ecosystems have been given protected status.

The various levels of protection are encompassed within the Network of Protected Natural Spaces of Andalusia (Red de Espacios Naturales Protegidos de Andalucía, RENPA) which integrates all protected natural spaces located in Andalusia, whether they are protected at the level of the local community, the autonomous community of Andalusia, the Spanish state, or by international conventions. RENPA consists of 150 protected spaces, consisting of two national parks+, 24 natural parks+, 21 periurban parks (on the fringes of cities or towns), 32 natural sites, two protected countrysides, 37 natural monuments, 28 nature reserves, and four concerted nature reserves (in which a government agency coordinates with the owner of the property for its management), all part of the European Union's Natura 2000+ network. Under the international ambit are the nine Biosphere Reserves+, 20 Ramsar+ wetland sites, four Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance+ and two UNESCO+ Geopark+s.

In total, nearly 20 percent of the territory of Andalusia lies in one of these protected areas, which constitute roughly 30 percent of the protected territory of Spain. Among these many spaces, some of the most notable are the Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park+, Spain's largest natural park and the second largest in Europe, the Sierra Nevada National Park+, Doñana National Park and Natural Park+, the Tabernas Desert+, and the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park+, the largest terrestrial-maritime reserve in the European Western Mediterranean Sea.


The geostrategic position of Andalusia in the extreme south of Europe+, providing (along with Morocco+) a gateway between Europe and Africa, added to its position between the Atlantic Ocean+ and the Mediterranean Sea+, as well as its rich deposits of minerals and its agricultural wealth, have made Andalusia a tempting prize for civilizations since prehistoric times. Add to this its area of (larger than many European countries), and it can be no surprise that Andalusia has figured prominently in the history of Europe and the Mediterranean.

Several theories postulate that the first hominid+s in Europe were in Andalusia, having passed across the Strait of Gibraltar+; the earliest known paintings of humanity have been found in the Caves of Nerja+, Málaga+. The first settlers, based on artifacts from the archaeological sites at Los Millares+, El Argar+, and Tartessos+, were clearly influenced by cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean who arrived on the Andalusian coast. Andalusia then went through a period of protohistory+, when the region did not have a written language of its own, but its existence was known to and documented by literate cultures, principally the Phoenicia+ns (Gadir, Malaka) and Ancient Greeks+. During the second millennium BCE, the kingdom of Tartessos+ developed in Andalusia.


With the fall of the Phoenicia+n cities, Carthage+ became the dominant sea power of the western Mediterranean and the most important trading partner for the Phoenician towns along the Andalusian coast. Between the First+ and Second Punic War+s, Carthage extended its control beyond Andalucia to include all of Iberia except the Basque Country. Andalusia was the major staging ground for the war with Rome led by the Hannibal+ Barca. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians and conquered Andalusia, the region being renamed Baetica+. It was fully incorporated into the Roman Empire+, and from this region came many Roman magistrates and senators, as well as the emperors Trajan+ and (most likely) Hadrian+.

The Vandals moved briefly through the region during the 5th century AD before settling in North Africa, after which the region fell into the hands of the Visigothic Kingdom+. The Visigoths+ in this region were practically independent of the Visigothic Catholic Kingdom of Toledo+. This is the era of Saints Isidore of Seville+ and Hermenegild+. During this period, around 555 AD, the Eastern Roman Empire+ conquered Andalusia under Justinian I+, the Eastern Roman Emperor+. They established Spania+, a province of the Byzantine Empire+ from 552 until 624. Though their holdings were quickly reduced, they continued to have interests in the region until it was lost altogether in 624.



The Visigothic era came to an abrupt end in 711 with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania+ by the Umayyad+ general Tariq ibn Ziyad+, an Islamic+ Berber+.
Nevertheless, the Guadalquivir+ River valley in present-day Andalusia was the hub of Muslim power in the peninsula, with the Caliphate of Córdoba+ making Córdoba+ its capital. The Umayyad Caliphate produced such illustrious leaders as Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III+ (ruled 912–961) and his son, Caliph Al-Hakam II+ (ruled 961–976); and built the magnificent Great Mosque of Córdoba+. Under these rulers, Moorish+ Islam in Spain reached its zenith, and Córdoba was a centre of global economic and cultural significance.


Already in the 10th century, the Christians of northern Spain had begun what would eventually become the Reconquista+: the reconquest of Spain for Christendom. Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman suffered some minor military defeats, but often managed to play off the Christian kingdoms. Al-Hakam's death achieved military successes, but at the expense of uniting the Christian kings of the north against him.

Internal divisions after the death of Almanzor+ (1002) led to the first of several decompositions of the Caliphate (1031). New centers of power arose, each ruling a ''taifa+'' (and often with multiple levels of nominal fealty and relative independence, according to the patterns of feudalism+). The ''taifa'' of Seville was especially influential, but the Emirate of Granada+ was the last to survive, lasting from 1228 until 1492.

After the conquest of Toledo in 1086 by Alfonso VI+, Christian rule dominated the peninsula. The main ''Taifa+s'' therefore had to resort to assistance from various Muslim powers across the Mediterranean. A number of different Muslim dynasties of North African origin—notably Almoravid dynasty+ and Almohad dynasty+—dominated a slowly diminishing Al-Andalus over the next several centuries.

After the Muslim victory at the Battle of Sagrajas+ (1086) put a temporary stop to Christian expansion, the Almoravid dynasty+ constructed a unified Al-Andalus with its capital in Granada, ruling until the mid-12th century. The various ''Taifa'' kingdoms were assimilated. the Almohad dynasty+ expansion in North Africa weakened Al-Andalus, and in 1170 the Almohads transferred their capital from Marrakesh+ to Seville+. The Christian victory at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa+ (1212) marked the beginning of the end of the Almohad dynasty.

The weakness caused by the collapse of Almohad power and the subsequent creation of new ''Taifas'', each with its own ruler, led to the rapid Christian reconquest of the valley of the Guadalquivir. Córdoba was regained in 1236 and Seville in 1248. The fall of Granada+ in 1492 put an end to Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula.


On 3 August 1492 Christopher Columbus+ left the town of Palos de la Frontera+, with the first expedition that resulted in the Europeans learning of the existence of America+. Many Andalusians participated in the expedition that would end the Middle Ages and signal the beginning of modernity. Contacts between Spain and the Americas+, including royal administration and the shipping trade of Spanish colonies+ for over three hundred years, came almost exclusively through Andalusia. As a result, the region became the wealthiest and most influential in Spain and one of the most influential in Europe. However, Habsburg+ ambitions elsewhere in Europe diverted much of the colonial wealth to war. Discontent with this situation culminated in 1641, when the Andalusian nobility staged an unsuccessful conspiracy to gain independence+ in 1641 from the provincial government of the Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares+.

In the first half of the 16th century plague+ was still prevalent in Spain. According to George C. Kohn, "One of the worst epidemics of the century, whose miseries were accompanied by severe drought and food shortage, started in 1505; by 1507, about 100,000 people had died in Andalusia alone... Andalusia was struck once again in 1646. For three years, plague+ haunted the entire region, causing perhaps as many as 200,000 deaths, especially in Málaga and Seville."

Following the Second Rebellion of the Alpujarras+ in 1568-1571, the Moorish population—that is, unconverted Morisco+s—were expelled from Kingdom of Castile+ (and Aragon+). However, by order of the Spanish crown+, two Moorish families were required to remain in each village in order to demonstrate to the new inhabitants, introduced from northern Spain, the workings of the terracing+ and irrigation systems on which the district's agriculture depends.

In 1810-12 the people strongly resisted the French occupation during the Peninsular War+ (part of the Napoleonic Wars).

Andalusia profited from the Spanish overseas empire, although much trade and finance eventually came to be controlled by other parts of Europe to where it was ultimately destined. In the 18th century, commerce from other parts of Spain began to displace Andalusian commerce when the Spanish government ended Andalusia's trading monopoly with the American colonies. The loss of the empire in the 1820s hurt the economy of the region, particularly the cities that had benefited from the trade and ship building. The construction of railways in the latter part of the 19th century enabled Andalusia to better develop its agricultural potential and it became an exporter of food. While industrialisation was taking off in the northern Spanish regions of Catalonia and the Basque country, Andalusia remained traditional and displayed a deep social division between a small class of wealthy landowners and a population made up largely of poor agricultural labourers and tradesmen.


Andalusia is one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain+. The Andalusian Autonomous Government+ (Spanish: ''Junta de Andalucía'') includes the Parliament of Andalusia+, its chosen president+, a Consultative Council, and other bodies.

The Autonomous Community of Andalusia was formed in accord with a referendum of 28 February 1980 and became an autonomous community under the 1981 Statute of Automony known as the ''Estatuto de Carmona''. The process followed the Spanish Constitution of 1978+, still current as of 2009, which recognizes and guarantees the right of automony for the various regions and nationalities of Spain. The process to establish Andalusia as an autonomous region followed Article 151 of the Constitution, making Andalusia the only autonomous community to take that particular course. That article was set out for regions like Andalusia that had been prevented by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War+ from adopting a statute of autonomy during the period of the Second Spanish Republic+.

Article 1 of the 1981 Statute of Autonomy justifies autonomy based on the region's "historical identity, on the self-government that the Constitution permits every nationality, on outright equality to the rest of the nationalities and regions that compose Spain, and with a power that emanates from the Andalusian Constitution and people, reflected in its Statute of Autonomy".

In October 2006 the constitutional commission of the Cortes Generales+ (the national legislature of Spain), with favorable votes from the left-of-center Spanish Socialist Workers' Party+ (PSOE), the leftist United Left+ (IU) and the right-of-center People`s Party+ (PP), approved a new Statute of Autonomy for Andalusia, whose preamble refers to the community as a "national reality+" (''realidad nacional''):



On 2 November 2006 the Spanish Chamber Deputies ratified the text of the Constitutional Commission with 306 votes in favor, none opposed, and 2 abstentions. This was the first time a Spanish Organic Law+ adopting a Statute of Autonomy was approved with no opposing votes. The Senate, in a plenary session of 20 December 2006, ratified the referendum to be voted upon by the Andalusian public 18 February 2007.

The Statute of Autonomy spells out Andalusia's distinct institutions of government and administration. Chief among these is the Andalusian Autonomous Government+ (''Junta de Andalucía''). Other institutions specified in the Statute are the Defensor del Pueblo Andaluz (literally "Defender of the Andalusian People", basically an ombudsperson+), the Consultative Council, the Chamber of Accounts, the Audiovisual Council of Andalusia, and the Economic and Social Council.

The Andalusian Statute of Autonomy recognizes Seville as the region's capital. The Andalusian Autonomous Government is located there. However, the region's highest court, the High Court of Andalusia+ (''Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Andalucía+'') is not part of the Autonomous Government, and has its seat in Granada+.



The Andalusian Autonomous Government (''Junta de Andalucía'') is the institution of self-government of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Within the government, the President of the Junta of Andalusia+ is the supreme representative of the autonomous community, and the ordinary representative of the Spanish state in the autonomous community. The president is formally named to the position by the Monarch of Spain+ and then confirmed by a majority vote of the Parliament of Andalusia+. In practice, the monarch always names a person acceptable to the ruling party or coalition of parties in the autonomous region. In theory, were the candidate to fail to gain the needed majority, the monarch could propose a succession of candidates. After two months, if no proposed candidate could gain the parliament's approval, the parliament would automatically be dissolved and the acting president would call new elections. On September 5, 2013 Susana Díaz+ was elected president.

The Council of Government, the highest political and administrative organ of the Community, exercises regulatory+ and executive power+. The President presides over the council, which also includes the heads of various departments (''Consejerías''). In the current legislature (2008–2012), there are 15 of these departments. In order of precedence, they are Presidency, Governance, Economy and Treasury, Education, Justice and Public Administration, Innovation, Science and Business, Public Works and Transportation, Employment, Health, Agriculture and Fishing, Housing and Territorial Planning, Tourism, Commerce and Sports, Equality and Social Welfare, Culture, and Environment.

The Parliament of Andalusia, its Autonomic Legislative Assembly, develops and approves laws and elects and removes the President. Elections to the Andalusian Parliament follow a democratic formula through which the citizens elect 109 representatives. After the approval of the Statute of Autonomy through Organic Law 6/1981 on 20 December 1981, the first elections to the autonomic parliament took place 23 May 1982. Further elections have occurred in 1986, 1990, 1994, 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008.

The current (2008–2012) legislature includes representatives of the PSOE-A (Andalusian branch of the left-of-center PSOE), PP-A (Andalusian branch of the right-of-center PP) and IULV-CA (Andalusian branch of the leftist IU).

The High Court of Andalusia+ (''Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Andalucía+'') in Granada is subject only to the higher jurisdiction of Supreme Court of Spain+. The High Court is not an organ of the Autonomous Community, but rather of the Judiciary of Spain+, which is unitary throughout the kingdom and whose powers are not transferred to the autonomous communities. The Andalusian territory is divided into 88 legal/judicial districts+ (''partidos judiciales'').



Andalusia consists of eight provinces+. The latter were established by Javier de Burgos+ in the 1833 territorial division of Spain+. Each of the Andalusian provinces bears the same name as its capital:


! Province !! Capital !! Population !! Density !! Municipalities !! Legal districts

| Almería+ | 702,819 | | 102 municipalities+ | 8

| Cádiz+ | 1,243,519 | | 44 municipalities+ | 14

| Córdoba+ | 805,857 | | 75 municipalities+ | 12

| Granada+ | 924,550 | | 170 municipalities+ | 9

| Huelva+ | 521,968 | | 79 municipalities+ | 6

| Jaén+ | 670,600 | | 97 municipalities+ | 10

| Málaga+ | 1,625,827 | | 102 municipalities+ | 11

| Seville+ | 1,928,962 | | 105 municipalities+ | 15
|

Andalusia is traditionally divided into two historical subregions: '''''Upper Andalusia'' or ''Eastern Andalusia''''', consisting of the provinces of Almería, Granada, Jaén, and Málaga, and '''''Lower Andalusia'' or ''Western Andalusia''''', consisting of the provinces of Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva and Seville.


Beyond the level of provinces, Andalusia is further divided into 774 municipalities+ (''municipios''). The municipalities of Andalusia are regulated by Title III of the Statute of Autonomy, Articles 91–95, which establishes the municipality as the basic territorial entity of Andalusia, each of which has legal personhood and autonomy in many aspects of its internal affairs. At the municipal level, representation, government and administration is performed by the ''ayuntamiento'' (municipal government), which has competency for urban planning+, community social services, supply and treatment of water, collection and treatment of waste, and promotion of tourism, culture, and sports, among other matters established by law.

Among the more important Andalusian cities besides the provincial capitals are:
* El Ejido+, Níjar+ and Roquetas de Mar+ (Almería)
* La Línea de la Concepción+, Algeciras+, Sanlúcar de Barrameda+, San Fernando+, Chiclana de la Frontera+, Puerto Real+, Arcos de la Frontera+, Jerez+ and El Puerto de Santa María+ (Cádiz)
* Almuñécar+, Guadix+, Loja+ and Motril+ (Granada)
* Linares+, Andújar+, Úbeda+ and Baeza+ (Jaén)
* Marbella+, Mijas+, Vélez-Málaga+, Fuengirola+, Torremolinos+, Estepona+, Benalmádena+, Antequera+, Rincón de la Victoria+ and Ronda+ (Málaga)
* Utrera+, Dos Hermanas+, Alcalá de Guadaíra+, Osuna+, Mairena del Aljarafe+, Ecija+ and Lebrija+ (Seville)

In conformity with the intent to devolve control as locally as possible, in many cases, separate nuclei of population within municipal borders each administer their own interests. These are variously known as ''pedanías'' ("hamlets"), ''villas'' ("villages"), ''aldeas'' (also usually rendered as "villages"), or other similar names.


Within the various autonomous communities of Spain, ''comarcas+'' are comparable to shire+s (or, in some countries, counties+) in the English-speaking world. Unlike in some of Spain's other autonomous communities, under the original 1981 Statute of Autonomy, the ''comarcas'' of Andalusia+ had no formal recognition, but, in practice, they still had informal recognition as geographic, cultural, historical, or in some cases administrative entities. The 2007 Statute of Autonomy echoes this practice, and mentions ''comarcas'' in Article 97 of Title III, which defines the significance of ''comarcas'' and establishes a basis for formal recognition in future legislation.

The current statutory entity that most closely resembles a ''comarca'' is the ''mancomunidad+'', a freely chosen, bottom-up association of municipalities intended as an instrument of socioeconomic development and coordination between municipal governments in specific areas.

Andalusia ranks first by population among the 17 autonomous communities of Spain. The estimated population at the beginning of 2009 was 8,285,692.''''. Instituto Nacional de Estadística+ (Spain). Retrieved 5 June 2009. The population is concentrated, above all, in the provincial capitals and along the coasts, so that the level of urbanization is quite high; half the population is concentrated in the 28 cities of more than 50,000 inhabitants. The population is aging, although the process of immigration is countering the inversion of the population pyramid+.
-:



! Evolution of the population of Andalusia

| '''1842'''
| '''1860'''
| '''1887'''
| '''1900'''
| '''1910'''
| '''1920'''
| '''1930'''

| 2,300,020
| 2,965,508
| 3,380,846
| 3,544,769
| 3,800,299
| 4,221,686
| 4,627,148

| '''1950'''
| '''1960'''
| '''1970'''
| '''1981'''
| '''1991'''
| '''2001'''
| '''2011'''

| 5,647,244
| 5,940,047
| 5,991,076
| 6,440,985
| 6,940,522
| 7,357,558
| 8,424,102
|


At the end of the 20th century, Andalusia was in the last phase of demographic transition+. The death rate+ stagnated at around 8–9 per thousand, and the population came to be influenced mainly by birth and migration.


In 1950, Andalusia had 20.04 percent of the national population of Spain. By 1981, this had declined to 17.09 percent. Although the Andalusian population was not declining in absolute terms, these relative losses were due to emigration great enough to nearly counterbalance having the highest birth rate+ in Spain. Since the 1980s, this process has reversed on all counts, and as of 2009, Andalusia has 17.82 percent of the Spanish population.
The birth rate is sharply down, as is typical in developed economies, although it has lagged much of the rest of the world in this respect. Furthermore, prior emigrants have been returning to Andalusia. Beginning in the 1990s, others have been immigrating in large numbers as well, as Spain has become a country of net immigration.

At the beginning of the 21st century, statistics show a slight increase in the birth rate, due in large part to the higher birth rate among immigrants. The result is that as of 2009, the trend toward rejuvenation of the population is among the strongest of any autonomous community of Spain, or of any comparable region in Europe.




At the beginning of the 21st century, the population structure of Andalusia shows a clear inversion of the population pyramid, with the largest cohorts falling between ages 25 and 50. Comparison of the population pyramid in 2008 to that in 1986 shows:
# A clear decrease in the population under the age of 25, due to a declining birth rate.
# An increase in the adult population, as the earlier, larger cohort born in the "baby boom" of the 1960s and 1970s reach adulthood. This effect has been exacerbated by immigration: the largest contingent of immigrants are young adults.
# A further increase in the adult population, and especially the older adult population, due to increased life expectancy+.

As far as composition by sex, two aspects stand out: the higher percentage of women in the elderly population, owing to women's longer life expectancy, and, on the other hand, the higher percentage of men of working age, due in large part to a predominantly male immigrant population.

In 2005, 5.35 percent of the population of Andalusia were born outside of Spain. This is a relatively low number for a Spanish region, the national average being three percentage points higher. The immigrants are not evenly distributed among the Andalusian provinces: Almería, with a 15.20 percent immigrant population, is third among all provinces in Spain, while at the other extreme Jaén is only 2.07 percent immigrants and Córdoba 1.77 percent. The predominant nationalities among the immigrant populations are Moroccan+ (92,500, constituting 17.79 percent of the foreigners living in Andalusia) and British+ (15.25 percent across the region). If one looks at regions rather than individual countries, the single largest immigrant block is from Latin America+, outnumbering either North Africans or non-Spanish Western Europeans. Demographically, this group has provided an important addition to the Andalusian labor force.

Andalusia is traditionally an agricultural area, but the service sector (particularly tourism, retail sales, and transportation) now predominates. The once booming construction sector, hit hard by the 2009 recession, was also important to the region's economy. The industrial sector is less developed than most other regions in Spain.

Between 2000–2006 economic growth per annum was 3.72%, one of the highest in the country. Still, according to the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Estadística+ (INE), the GDP per capita of Andalusia (€17,401; 2006) remains the second lowest in Spain, with only Extremadura+ lagging behind.



|+ '''GDP, GDP per capita, number of people in the work force, percentage of the Andalusian work force by province'''
! !! Andalusia !! Almería+ !! Cádiz+ !! Córdoba+ !! Granada+ !! Huelva+ !! Jaén+ !! Málaga+ !! Sevilla+

| GDP (thousands of €) | 115,273,571| align=center|10,695,222| align=center| 17,476,650| align=center| 10,287,555| align=center| 11,656,391| align=center| 7,562,345| align=center| 8,555,194| align=center|21,605,838|27,432,372

| GDP per capita|10,171| align=center|12,036 | align=center| 9,805| align=center| 9,821| align=center| 9,794 | align=center| 10,151|9,676| align=center| 10,279| align=center| 10,232

| Thousands of workers | align=center| 2,825.3|274.7| align=center|408.1 | align=center| 262.0| align=center| 285.7| align=center| 158.8 | align=center| 220.0|538.2| align=center| 677.8

| Percentage of province|100%| align=center|9.28% | align=center|15.16%| align=center| 8.92%| align=center|10.11% | align=center| 6.56%|7.42%| align=center|18.74% | align=center|23.8%
|


The primary sector+, despite adding the least of the three sectors to the regional GDP+ remains important, especially when compared to typical developed economies. The primary sector produces 8.26 percent of regional GDP and employs 8.19 percent of the workforce.
The primary sector is divided into a number of subsectors: agriculture+, commercial fishing+, animal husbandry+, hunting+, forestry+, mining+, and energy+.




The most important tree crops are olives+, especially in the Subbetic regions of the provinces of Córdoba and Jáen, where irrigated olive orchards constitute a large component of agricultural output. There are extensive vineyard+s in various zones such as Jerez de la Frontera+ (sherry+), Condado de Huelva+, Montilla-Moriles+ and Málaga+. Fruits—mainly citrus+ fruits—are grown near the banks of the Guadalquivir; almond+s, which require far less water, are grown on the high plains of Granada and Alemería.

In monetary terms, by far the most productive and competitive agriculture in Andalusia is the intensive forced cultivation of strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and other fruits grown under hothouse conditions under clear plastic, often in sandy zones, on the coasts, in Almería and Huelva.



Organic farming+ has recently undergone rapid expansion in Andalusia, mainly for export to European markets but with increasing demand developing in Spain.

Andalusia has a long tradition of animal husbandry+ and livestock+ farming, but it is now restricted mainly to mountain meadows, where there is less pressure from other potential uses. Andalusians have a long and colourful history of dog breeding+ that can be observed throughout the region today. The raising of livestock now plays a semi-marginal role in the Andalusian economy, constituting only 15 percent of the primary sector, half the number for Spain taken as a whole.

"Extensive" raising of livestock grazes the animals on natural or cultivated pasture+s, whereas "intensive" raising of livestock is based in fodder+ rather than pasture. Although the productivity is higher than with extensive techniques, the economics are quite different. While intensive techniques now dominate in Europe and even in other regions of Spain, most of Andalusia's cattle+, virtually all of its sheep+ and goat+s, and a good portion of its pig+s are raised by extensive farming in mountain pastures. This includes the Black Iberian pig+s that are the source of ''Jamón ibérico+''. Andalusia's native sheep and goats present a great economic opportunity in a Europe where animal products are generally in strong supply, but the sheep and goat meat, milk, and leather (and the products derived from these) are relatively scarce. Dog+s are bred not just as companion animals, but also as herding animals used by goat and sheep herders.

Hunting remains relatively important in Andalusia, but has largely lost its character as a means of obtaining food.
It is now more of a leisure activity linked to the mountain areas and complementary to forestry and the raising of livestock. Dogs are frequently used as hunting companions to retrieve killed game.

The Andalusian forest+s are important for their extent—50 percent of the territory of Andalusia—and for other less quantifiable environmental reasons, such as their value in preventing erosion, regulating the flow of water necessary for other flora and fauna. For these reasons, there is legislation in place to protect the Andalusian forests. The value of forest products as such constitutes only 2 percent of agricultural production. This comes mostly from cultivated species—eucalyptus+ in Huelva and poplar+ in Granada—as well as naturally occurring cork oak+ in the Sierra Morena.



Fishing+ is a longstanding tradition on the Andalusian coasts. Fish and other seafood have long figured prominently in the local diet and in the local gastronomic+ culture: fried fish+ (''pescaito frito'' in local dialect), white prawn+s, ''almadraba+'' tuna, among others. The Andalusian fishing fleet is Spain's second largest, after Galicia+, and Andalusia's 38 fishing ports are the most of any Spanish autonomous community. Commercial fishing produces only 0.5 percent of the product of the regional primary sector by value, but there are areas where it has far greater importance. In the province of Huelva it constitutes 20 percent of the primary sector, and locally in Punta Umbría+ 70 percent of the work force is involved in commercial fishing.

Failure to comply with fisheries laws regarding the use of trawling, urban pollution+ of the seacoast, destruction of habitats by coastal construction (for example, alteration of the mouths of rivers, construction of ports), and diminution of fisheries by overexploitation+
have created a permanent crisis in the Andalusian fisheries, justifying attempts to convert the fishing fleet. The decrease in fish stocks has led to the rise of aquaculture+, including fish farming+ both on the coasts and in the interior.

Despite the general poor returns in recent years, mining+ retains a certain importance in Andalusia. Andalusia produces half of Spain's mining product by value. Of Andalusia's production, roughly half comes from the province of Huelva. Mining for precious metals at Minas de Riotinto+ in Huelva (''see Rio Tinto Group+'') dates back to pre-Roman times; the mines were abandoned in the Middle Ages and rediscovered in 1556. Other mining activity is coal+ mining in the Guadiato valley in the province of Córdoba; various metals at Aznalcóllar+ in the province of Seville, and iron at Alquife+ in the province of Granada. In addition, limestone, clay, and other materials used in construction are well distributed throughout Andalusia.

The Andalusian industrial sector has always been relatively small. Nevertheless in 2007, Andalusian industry earned 11.979 million euros and employed more than 290,000 workers. This represented 9.15 percent of regional GDP, far below the 15.08 the secondary sector represents in the economy of Spain as a whole. By analyzing the different subsectors of the food industry Andalusian industry accounts for more than 16% of total production. In a comparison with the Spanish economy, this subsector is virtually the only food that has some weight in the national economy with 16.16%. Lies far behind the manufacturing sector of shipping materials just over 10% of the Spanish economy. Companies like Cruzcampo (Heineken Group), Puleva, Domecq, Santana Motors or Renault-Andalusia, are exponents of these two subsectors. Of note is the Andalusian aeronautical sector, which is second nationally only behind Madrid and represents approximately 21% of total turnover in terms of employment, highlighting companies like Airbus, Airbus Military, or the newly formed Aerospace Alestis. On the contrary it is symptomatic of how little weight the regional economy in such important sectors such as textiles or electronics at the national level.

Andalusian industry is also characterized by a specialization in industrial activities of transforming raw agricultural and mineral materials. This is largely done by small enterprises without the public or foreign investment more typical of a high level of industrialization.



In recent decades the Andalusian tertiary (service) sector has grown greatly, and has come to constitute the majority of the regional economy, as is typical of contemporary economies in developed nations. In 1975 the service sector produced 51.1 percent of local GDP and employed 40.8 percent of the work force. In 2007, this had risen to 67.9 percent of GDP and 66.42 percent of jobs. This process of "tertiarization" of the economy has followed a somewhat unusual course in Andalusia. This growth occurred somewhat earlier than in most developed economies and occurred independently of the local industrial sector. There were two principal reasons that "tertiarization" followed a different course in Andalusia than elsewhere:

1. Andalusian capital found it impossible to compete in the industrial sector against more developed regions, and was obligated to invest in sectors that were easier to enter.

2. The absence of an industrial sector that could absorb displaced agricultural workers and artisans led to the proliferation of services with rather low productivity. This unequal development compared to other regions led to a hypertrophied and unproductive service sector, which has tended to reinforce underdevelopment, because it has not led to large accumulations of capital.




Due in part to the relatively mild winter and spring climate, the south of Spain is attractive to overseas visitors–especially tourists from Northern Europe. While inland areas such as Jaén+, Córdoba+ and the hill villages and towns remain relatively untouched by tourism, the coastal areas of Andalusia have heavy visitor traffic for much of the year.

Among the autonomous communities, Andalusia is second only to Catalonia+ in tourism, with nearly 30 million visitors every year. The principal tourist destinations in Andalusia are the Costa del Sol+ and (secondarily) the Sierra Nevada+. As discussed above+, Andalusia is one of the sunniest and warmest places in Europe, making it a center of "sun and sand" tourism. 70 percent of the lodging capacity and 75 percent of the nights booked in Andalusian hotels are in coastal municipalities. The largest number of tourists come in August—13.26 percent of the nights booked throughout the year—and the smallest number in December—5.36 percent.

On the west (Atlantic) coast are the Costa de la Luz+ (provinces of Huelva and Cádiz), and on the east (Mediterranean) coast, the Costa del Sol+ (provinces of Cádiz y Málaga), Costa Tropical+ (Granada and part of Almería) and the Costa de Almería+. In 2004, the Blue Flag beach+ program of the non-profit Foundation for Environmental Education+ recognized 66 Andalusian beaches and 18 pleasure craft ports as being in a good state of conservation in terms of sustainability, accessibility, and quality. Nonetheless, the level of tourism on the Andalusian coasts has been high enough to have a significant environmental impact, and other organizations—such as the Spanish Ecologists in Action+ (''Ecologistas en Acción'') with their description of "Black Flag beaches" or Greenpeace+—have expressed the opposite sentiment.

Together with "sand and sun" tourism, there has also been a strong increase in nature tourism in the interior, as well as cultural tourism+, sport tourism, and conventions. One example of sport and nature tourism is the ski resort at Sierra Nevada National Park+.

As for cultural tourism, Andalusia has some notable monuments dating back to the Muslim era: the Great Mosque of Córdoba+, the Alhambra+ in Granada, the Giralda+ and Alcazar+ in Seville, and the Alcazaba+ in Málaga. There are hundreds of cultural tourist destinations: cathedrals, castles, forts, monasteries, and historic city centers; the city centers of Úbeda+ and Baeza+ in the province of Jaén are UNESCO World Heritage Site+s.

Each of the provinces shows a great variety of architectural styles: Islamic architecture+, Renaissance architecture+, Baroque architecture+ and more modern styles. Further, there are the ''Lugares colombinos+'', significant places in the life of Christopher Columbus+: Palos de la Frontera+, La Rábida Monastery+, and Moguer+) in the province of Huelva. There are also archeological sites of great interest: the Roman city of Italica+, birthplace of Emperor+ Trajan+ and (most likely) Hadrian+; Baelo Claudia+ near the Straits of Gibraltar; Medina Azahara+, the city-palace of the Cordoban caliph+ Abd-ar-Rahman III+, where major excavations still continue.

Andalusia was the birthplace of such great painters as Velázquez+ and Murillo+ (Seville) and, more recently, Picasso+ (Málaga); Picasso is memorialized by his native city at the Museo Picasso Málaga+ and Natal House Foundation+; the Casa de Murillo+ was a house museum+ 1982–1998, but is now mostly offices for the Andalusian Council of Culture. The is the most visited museum of Andalusia and has offered exhibitions of artists such as Louise Bourgeois+, Jake and Dinos Chapman+, Gerhard Richter+, Anish Kapoor+, Ron Mueck+ or Rodney Graham+. Malaga is also located part of the private Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection+ at Carmen Thyssen Museum+.

There are numerous other significant museums around the region, both of paintings and of archeological artifacts such as gold jewelry, pottery and other ceramics, and other works that demonstrate the region's artisanal traditions.

The Council of Government has designated the following "Municipios Turísticos": in Almería, Roquetas de Mar+; in Cádiz, Chiclana de la Frontera+, Chipiona+, Conil de la Frontera+, Grazalema+, Rota+, and Tarifa+; in Granada, Almuñécar+; in Huelva, Aracena+; in Jaén, Cazorla+; in Málaga, Benalmádena+, Fuengirola+, Nerja+, Rincón de la Victoria+, Ronda+, and Torremolinos+; in Seville, Santiponce+.


* Alcazaba+, Almería+
* Cueva de Menga+, Antequera (Málaga)+
* El Torcal+, Antequera (Málaga)+
* Medina Azahara+, Córdoba+
* Mosque+, Córdoba+
* Mudejar Quarter, Frigiliana (Málaga)+
* Alhambra+, Granada+
* Palace of Charles V+, Granada+
* Charterhouse+, Granada+
* Albayzín+, Granada+
* La Rabida Monastery+, Palos de la Frontera+ (Huelva+)
* Castle of Santa Catalina+, Jaén+
* Jaén Cathedral+, Jaén+
* Úbeda+ and Baeza+, Jaén+
* Alcazaba+, Málaga+
* Buenavista Palace+, Málaga+
* Málaga Cathedral+, Málaga+
* Puente Nuevo+, Ronda (Málaga)+
* Caves of Nerja+, Nerja (Málaga)+
* Ronda Bullring+, Ronda (Málaga)+
* Giralda+, Seville+
* Torre del Oro+, Seville+
* Plaza de España+, Seville+
* Seville Cathedral+, Seville+
* Alcázar of Seville+, Seville+
div col end:



As in any modern society, transport systems are an essential structural element of the functioning of Andalusia. The transportation network facilitates territorial coordination, economic development and distribution, and intercity transportation.

In urban transport, underdeveloped public transport systems put pedestrian traffic and other non-motorized traffic are at a disadvantage compared to the use of private vehicles. Several Andalusian capitals—Córdoba, Granada and Seville—have recently been trying to remedy this by strengthening their public transport systems and providing a better infrastructure for the use of bicycle+s.

For over a century, the conventional rail network has been centralized on the regional capital, Seville, and the national capital, Madrid; in general, there are no direct connections between provincial capitals. High-speed AVE+ trains run from Madrid via Córdoba to Seville and Málaga. Further AVE routes are under construction. The Madrid-Córdoba-Seville route was the first high-velocity route in Spain (operating since 1992). Other principal routes are the one from Algeciras to Seville and from Almería+ via Granada to Madrid.

Most of the principal roads have been converted into limited access highway+s known as ''autovía+s''. The Autovía del Este (Autovía A-4+) runs from Madrid through the Despeñaperros Natural Park, then via Bailén, Córdoba, and Seville to Cádiz, and is part of European route E05+ in the International E-road network+. The other main road in the region is the portion of European route E15+, which runs as the Autovia del Mediterráneo along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Parts of this constitute the superhighway+ Autopista AP-7+, while in other areas it is Autovía A-7+. Both of these roads run generally east-west, although the Autovía A-4 turns to the south in western Andalusia.

Other first-order roads include the Autovía A-48+ roughly along the Atlantic coast from Cádiz to Algeciras, continuing European route E05 to meet up with European route E15+; the Autovía del Quinto Centenario (Autovía A-49+), which continues west from Seville (where the Autovía A-4 turns toward the south) and goes on to Huelva and into Portugal as European route E01+; the Autovía Ruta de la Plata (Autovía A-66+), European route E803+, which roughly corresponds to the ancient Roman 'Silver Route+' from the mines of northern Spain, and runs north from Seville; the Autovía de Málaga (Autovía A-45+), which runs south from Córdoba to Málaga; and the Autovía de Sierra Nevada (Autovía A-44+), part of European route E902+, which runs south from Jaén to the Mediterranean coast at Motril.

As of 2008 Andalusia has six public airports, all of which can legally handle international flights; however the Málaga Airport+ is dominant, handling 60.67 percent of passengers The Seville Airport+ handles another 20.12 percent of traffic, and the Jerez Airport+ 7.17 percent, so that these three airports account for 87.96 percent of traffic.

Málaga Airport is the international airport that offers a wide variety of international destinations. It has a daily link with twenty cities in Spain and over a hundred cities in Europe (mainly in Great Britain, Central Europe and the Nordic countries but also the main cities of Eastern Europe: Moscow+, Saint Petersburg+, Sofia+, Riga+ or Bucharest+), North Africa, Middle East (Riyadh+, Jeddah+ and Kuwait+) and North America (New York+, Toronto+ and Montreal+).

The main ports are Algeciras (for freight and container traffic) and Málaga for cruise ships. Algeciras is Spain's leading commercial port, with of cargo in 2004. Seville has Spain's only commercial river port. Other significant commercial ports in Andalusia are the ports of the Bay of Cádiz+, Almería and Huelva.

The Council of Government has approved a Plan of Infrastructures for the Sustainability of Transport in Andalusia (PISTA) 2007–2013, which plans an investment of 30 billion euros during that period.
The lack of high-quality fossil fuel+s in Andalusia has led to a strong dependency on petroleum+ imports. Still, Andalusia has a strong potential for the development of renewable energy+, above all wind energy+. The Andalusian Energy Agency established in 2005 by the autonomous government, is a new governmental organ charged with the development of energy policy and provision of a sufficient supply of energy for the community.

The infrastructure for production of electricity+ consists of eight large thermal power station+s, more than 70 hydroelectric+ power plants, two wind farm+s, and 14 major cogeneration+ facilities. Historically, the largest Andalusian business in this sector was the Compañía Sevillana de Electricidad+, founded in 1894, absorbed into Endesa+ in 1996.

The Solar power tower+ PS10+ was built by the Andalusian firm Abengoa+ in Sanlúcar la Mayor+ in the province of Seville, and began operating in March 2007. It is the largest existing solar power facility in Europe. Smaller solar power stations, also recent, exist at Cúllar+ and Galera, Granada+, inaugurated by Geosol+ and Caja Granada+. Two more large thermosolar facilities, Andasol I y II+, planned at Hoya de Guadix+ in the province of Granada are expected to supply electricity to half a million households., Energías Renovables, 12 July 2007. The Plataforma Solar de Almería+ (PSA) in the Tabernas Desert is an important center for the exploration of the solar energy.

The largest wind power firm in the region is the Sociedad Eólica de Andalucía+, formed by the merger of Planta Eólica del Sur S.A.+ and Energía Eólica del Estrecho S.A.+

Law School of the +.">University of Granada+.+." style="color: #CCCCCC;">+

As throughout Spain, basic education in Andalusia is free and compulsory. Students are required to complete ten years of schooling, and may not leave school before the age of 16, after which students may continue on to a baccalaureate+, to intermediate vocational education+, to intermediate-level schooling in arts and design, to intermediate sports studies, or to the working world.

Andalusia has a tradition of higher education dating back to the Middle Ages+ and the Madrasah of Granada+, University of Baeza+, and University of Osuna+.

As of 2009, there are ten private or public universities in Andalucia. University studies are structured in cycles, awarding degrees based on ECTS credits+ in accord with the Bologna process+, which the Andalusian universities are adopting in accord with the other universities of the European Higher Education Area+.


Responsibility for healthcare jurisdictions devolved from the Spanish government to Andalusia with the enactment of the Statute of Autonomy. Thus, the Andalusian Health Service+ (''Servicio Andaluz de Salud'') currently manages almost all public health resources of the Community, with such exceptions as health resources for prisoners and members of the military, which remain under central administration.

According to the Outreach Program for Science in Andalusia, Andalusia contributes 14 percent of Spain's scientific production behind only Madrid and Catalonia among the autonomous communities, even though regional investment in research and development+ (R&D) as a proportion of GDP+ is below the national average. The lack of research capacity in business and the low participation of the private sector in research has resulted in R&D taking place largely in the public sector.

The Council of Innovation, Science and Business is the organ of the autonomous government responsible for universities, research, technological development, industry, and energy. The council coordinates and initiates scientific and technical innovation through specialized centers an initiatives such as the Andalusian Center for Marine Science and Technology+ (''Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnología Marina'') and Technological Corporation of Andalusia+ (''Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía'').

Within the private sphere, although also promoted by public administration, technology parks have been established throughout the Community, such as the Technological Park of Andalucia+ (''Parque Tecnológico de Andalucía'') in Campanillas+ on the outskirts of Málaga, and Cartuja 93+ in Seville. Some of these parks specialize in specific sector, such as Aerópolis+ in aerospace+ or Geolit+ in food technology+. The Andalusian government deployed 600,000 Ubuntu+ desktop computers in their schools.

Andalusia has international, national, regional, and local media organizations, which are active gathering and disseminating information (as well as creating and disseminating information entertainment).

The most notable is the public Radio y Televisión de Andalucía+ (RTVA), broadcasting on two regional television channels, Canal Sur+ and Canal Sur 2+, four regional radio stations, Canal Sur Radio+, Canal Fiesta Radio+, Radio Andalucía Información+ and Canal Flamenco Radio+, as well as various digital signals, most notably Andalucía Televisión+ available on cable TV+ throughout Spain.

Different newspapers are published for each Andalusian provincial capital, comarca+, or important city. Often, the same newspaper organization publishes different local editions with much shared content, with different mastheads+ and different local coverage. There are also popular papers distributed without charge, again typically with local editions that share much of their content.

No single Andalusian newspaper is distributed throughout the region, not even with local editions. In eastern Andalusia the ''Diario Ideal+'' has edition in the provinces if Almería, Granada, and Jaén. Grupo Joly+ is based in Andalucia, backed by Andalusian capital, and publishes eight daily newspapers there. Efforts to create a newspaper for the entire autonomous region have not succeeded (the most recent as of 2009 was the ''Diario de Andalucía+''). The national press (''El País+'', ''El Mundo+'', ''ABC+'', etc.) include sections or editions specific to Andalusia.



Andalusia has two public television stations, both operated by Radio y Televisión de Andalucía+ (RTVA):
* Canal Sur+ first broadcast on 28 February 1989 (Día de Andalucía+).
* Canal Sur 2+ first broadcast 5 June 1998. Programming focuses on culture, sports, and programs for children and youth.

In addition, RTVA also operates the national and international cable channel Andalucía Televisión+, which first broadcast in 1996.

There are four public radio stations in the region, all operated by RTVA:
* Canal Sur Radio+ first broadcast October 1988.
* Canal Fiesta Radio+ first broadcast January 2001.
* Radio Andalucía Información+ first broadcast September 1998.
* Canal Flamenco Radio+, first broadcast 29 September 2008.



The culture of Andalusia has been shaped by its particular history and geography, as well as its complex flows of population. Andalusia has been home to a succession of peoples and civilizations, many very different from one another, each impacting the settled inhabitants. The ancient Iberians+ were followed by Celts+, Phoenicia+ns and other Eastern Mediterranean traders, Romans+, migrating Germanic tribes+, North African Muslim+s, and the Castilians+ and other Spanish of the ''Reconquista+''. All have affected Andalusian identity and culture, which was already delineated in the 19th century and diffused widely in the literary and pictorial genre of the ''costumbrismo andaluz+''.


In the 19th century, Andalusian culture came to be widely viewed as the Spanish culture ''par excellence'', in part thanks to the perceptions of romantic+ travellers. In the words of Ortega y Gasset+:



Andalusia has been the birthplace of many great artists: the classic painters Velázquez+, Murillo+, and Juan de Valdés Leal+; the sculptors Juan Martínez Montañés+, Alonso Cano+ and Pedro de Mena+; and such modern painters as Daniel Vázquez Díaz+ and Pablo Picasso+.

The composer Manuel de Falla+ was from Cádiz and incorporated typical Andalusian melodies in his works, as did Joaquín Turina+, from Seville. The great singer Camarón de la Isla+ was born in San Fernando, Cádiz+, and Andrés Segovia+ who helped shape the romantic-modernist approach to classical guitar+, was born in Linares, Jaén+.


Since the Neolithic+ era, Andalusia has preserved important megalith+s, such as the dolmen+s at the Cueva de Menga+ and the Dolmen de Viera+, both at Antequera+. Archeologists have found Bronze Age+ cities at Los Millares+ and El Argar+. Archeological digs at Doña Blanca in El Puerto de Santa María+ have revealed the oldest Phoenicia+ns city in the Iberian peninsula; major ruins have also been revealed at Roman Italica+ near Seville.

Some of the greatest architecture in Andalusia dates from the Muslim era: the Alhambra+ and the Great Mosque of Córdoba+.

The traditional architecture of Andalusia retains its Roman+ and Arab+ roots, with a marked Mediterranean character strongly conditioned by the climate. Traditional urban houses are constructed with shared walls to minimize exposure to high exterior temperatures. Solid exterior walls are painted+ with lime+ to minimize the heating effects of the sun. In accord with the climate and tradition of each area, the roofs may be terraces+ or tiled in the Roman imbrex and tegula+ style. One of the most characteristic elements (and one of the most obviously influenced by Roman and North African architecture+) is the interior patio+ or courtyard+; the patios of Córdoba are particularly famous. Other characteristic elements are decorative (and functional) wrought iron+ grating+s, and the tile+s known as ''azulejo+s''. Landscaping—both for common private homes and homes on a more lavish scale—also carries on older traditions, with plants, flowers, and fountains, pools, and streams of water. Beyond these general elements, there are also specific local architectural styles, such as the flat roof+s, roofed chimneys, and radically extended balconies+ of the Alpujarra+, the cave dwellings of Guadix+ and of Granada's Sacromonte+, or the traditional architecture of the Marquisate of Zenete+.



Revivalist+ architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries contributed the buildings of the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929+ in Seville, including the Neo-Mudéjar+ Plaza de España+. Andalusia also preserves an important industrial patrimony related to various economic activities.

Besides the architecture of the cities, there is also much outstanding rural architecture: houses, as well as ranch and farm buildings and dog house+s.



The Iberian reliefs+ of Osuna+, Lady of Baza+, and León de Bujalance+, the Phoenecian sarcophagi+ of Cádiz, and the Roman sculpture+s of the Baetic+ cities such as Italica+ give evidence of traditions of sculpture in Andalusia dating back to antiquity. There are few significant surviving sculptures from the time of al-Andalus+; two notable exceptions are the lions of the Alhambra and of the Maristán of Granada+ (the Muslim-era hospital in the Albaicín).

The Sevillian school of sculpture+ dating from the 13th century onward and the Granadan school+ beginning toward the end of the 16th century both focused primarily on Christian religious subject matter, including many wooden altarpiece+s. Notable sculptors in these traditions include Lorenzo Mercadante de Bretaña+, Pedro Millán+, Juan Martínez Montañés+, Pedro Roldán+, José de Arce+, Jerónimo Balbás+, Alonso Cano+, and Pedro de Mena+.

Non-religious sculpture has also existed in Andalusia since antiquity. A fine example from the Renaissance era is the decoration of the Casa de Pilatos+ in Seville. Nonetheless, non-religious sculpture played a relatively minor role until such 19th-century sculptors as Antonio Susillo+.


As in sculpture, there were Sevillian+ and the Granadan+ schools of painting. The latter has figured prominently in the history of Spanish art since the 15th century and includes such important artists as Zurbarán+, Velázquez+ and Murillo+, as well as theoreticians of art+ such as Francisco Pacheco+. The Museum of Fine Arts of Seville+ and the The Prado+ contain numerous representative works of the Sevillian school of painting.

A specific romantic+ genre known as ''costumbrismo andaluz+'' depicts traditional and folkloric Andalusian subjects, such as bull fighting scenes, dogs, and scenes from Andalusia's history. Important artists in this genre include Manuel Barrón+, José García Ramos+, Gonzalo Bilbao Martínez+ and Julio Romero de Torres+. The genre is well represented in the private Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection+, part of which is on display at Madrid's Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum+ and Carmen Thyssen Museum+ in Málaga.

Málaga also has been and is an important artistic center. Its most illustrious representative was Pablo Picasso+, one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. The city has a Museum+ and Natal House Foundation+, dedicated to the painter.



Andalusia plays a significant role in the history of Spanish language+ literature, however not all of the important literature associated with Andalusia was written in Spanish. Before 1492, there was the literature written in Andalusian Arabic+. Hispano-Arabic authors native to the region include
Ibn Hazm+, Ibn Zaydun+, Ibn Tufail+, Al-Mu'tamid+, Ibn al-Khatib+, Ibn al-Yayyab+, and Ibn Zamrak+ or Andalusian Hebrew poets as Solomon Ibn Gabirol+. Twelfth-century writer Ibn Quzman+ crafted poems in the colloquial Andalusian language.

In 1492 Antonio de Nebrija+ published his celebrated ''Gramática de la lengua castellana+'' ("Grammar of the Castilian language"), the first such work for a modern European language. In 1528 Francisco Delicado+ wrote ''La lozana andaluza+'', a novel in the orbit of ''La Celestina+'', and in 1599 the Sevillian Mateo Alemán+ wrote the first part of ''Guzmán de Alfarache+'', the first picaresque novel+ with a known author.

The prominent humanist+ literary school of Seville included such writers as Juan de Mal Lara+, Fernando de Herrera+, Gutierre de Cetina+, Luis Barahona de Soto+, Juan de la Cueva+, Gonzalo Argote de Molina+, and Rodrigo Caro+. The Cordoban Luis de Góngora+ was the greatest exponent of the ''culteranismo+'' of Baroque+ poetry in the Siglo de Oro+; indeed, the style is often referred to as ''Góngorismo''.

Literary Romanticism in Spain had one of its great centers in Andalusia, with such authors as Ángel de Saavedra, Duke of Rivas+, José Cadalso+ and Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer+. ''Costumbrismo andaluz'' existed in literature as much as in visual art, with notable examples being the ''Escenas andaluzas'' of Serafín Estébanez Calderón+ and the works of Pedro Antonio de Alarcón+.

Andalusian authors Ángel Ganivet+, Manuel Gómez-Moreno+, Manuel+ and Antonio Machado+, and Francisco Villaespesa+ are all generally counted in the Generation of '98+. Also of this generation were the Hermanos Álvarez Quintero+, dramatists who faithfully captured Andalusian dialects+ and idiosyncrasies. Also of note, 1956 Nobel Prize+-winning poet Juan Ramón Jiménez+ was a native of Moguer+, near Huelva.

A large portion of the ''avant garde+'' Generation of '27+ who gathered at the Ateneo de Sevilla+ on the 300th anniversary of Góngora's death were Andalusians: Federico García Lorca+, Luis Cernuda+, Rafael Alberti+, Manuel Altolaguirre+, Emilio Prados+, and 1977 Nobel laureate Vicente Aleixandre+.

Certain Andalusian fictional characters have become universal archetypes: Prosper Merimée+'s gypsy ''Carmen'', P. D. Eastman+'s ''Perro'', Pierre Beaumarchais+'s ''Fígaro'', and Tirso de Molina+'s ''Don Juan''.

As in most regions of Spain, the principal form of popular verse is the romance+, although there are also strophe+s specific to Andalusia, such as the ''soleá+'' or the ''soleariya+''. Ballads, lullabies, street vendor's cries, nursery rhymes, and work songs are plentiful.

Among the philosophers native to the region can be counted Seneca+, Avicebron+, Maimonides+, Averroes+, Fernán Pérez de Oliva+, Sebastián Fox Morcillo+, Ángel Ganivet+, Francisco Giner de los Ríos+ and María Zambrano+.




The music of Andalusia includes traditional and contemporary music, folk and composed music, and ranges from flamenco+ to rock+. Conversely, certain metric, melodic and harmonic characteristics are considered Andalusian even when written or performed by musicians from elsewhere.

Flamenco, perhaps the most characteristically Andalusian genre of music and dance, originated in the 18th century, but is based in earlier forms from the region. The influence of the traditional music and dance of the Romani people+ or Gypsies is particularly clear. The genre embraces distinct vocal (''cante flamenco+''), guitar (''toque flamenco+''), and dance (''baile flamenco+'') styles.

The Andalusian Statute of Autonomy reflects the cultural importance of flamenco in its Articles 37.1.18 and 68:





Fundamental in the history of Andalusian music are the composers Cristóbal de Morales+, Francisco Guerrero+, Francisco Correa de Arauxo+, Manuel García+, Manuel de Falla+, Joaquín Turina+, and Manuel Castillo+, as well as the father of modern classical guitar+, the guitarist Andrés Segovia+. Mention should also be made of the great folk artists of the ''copla (music)+'' and the ''cante hondo+'', such as Rocío Jurado+, Lola Flores+ (''La Faraona'', "the pharaoh+"), Juanito Valderrama+ and the revolutionary Camarón de la Isla+.

Prominent Andalusian rock groups include Triana+ and Medina Azahara+. The duo Los del Río+ from Dos Hermanas+ had international success with their "Macarena+", including playing at a Super Bowl+ half-time show in the United States+, where their song has also been used as campaign music by the Democratic Party+. Other notables include the singer, songwriter, and poet Joaquín Sabina+, Isabel Pantoja+, Rosa López+, who represented Spain at Eurovision+ in 2002, and David Bisbal+.



The portrayal of Andalusia in film is often reduced to archetypes: flamenco, bullfighting+, Catholic pageantry, brigands+, the property-rich and cash-poor ''señorito andaluz'' and emigrants. These images particularly predominated from the 1920s through the 1960s, and helped to consolidate a cliched image of the region. In a very different vein, the province of Almería was the filming location for many Westerns+, especially (but by no means exclusively) the Italian-directed Spaghetti Western+s. During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco+, this was the extent of the film industry in Andalusia.

Nonetheless, Andalusian film has roots as far back as José Val del Omar+ in the pre-Franco years, and since the Spanish transition to democracy+ has brought forth numerous nationally and internationally respected directors: Antonio Cuadri+ (''Heart of the Earth+''), Chus Gutiérrez+ (''Poniente+''), Chiqui Carabante+ (''Carlos Against the World+''), Alberto Rodríguez+ (''7 Virgins+''), Benito Zambrano+ (''Solas+''), and Antonio Banderas+ (''Summer Rain+'').

Counting together feature films, documentaries, television programs, music videos etc., Andalusia has boomed from 37 projects shooting in 1999 to 1,054 in 2007, with the figure for 2007 including 19 feature films. Although feature films are the most prestigious, commercials and television are currently more economically important to the region.

The Filmoteca de Andalucía+, headquartered in Córdoba, is a government-run entity in charge of the investigation, collection and diffusion of Andalusian cinematic heritage. Other important contributors to this last activity are such annual film festivals as the Málaga Film Festival+ (''Festival de Málaga Cine Español (FMCE)''), the most important festival dedicated exclusively to cinema made in Spain, the Seville Festival of European Film+ (SFCE), the International Festival of Short Films - Almería in Short+, the Huelva Festival of Latin American Film+, the Atlantic Film Show+ in Cádiz, the Islantilla Festival of Film and Television+ and the African Film Festival of Tarifa+.Festival de cine europeo de Sevilla,
Festival Internacional de Cortometrajes Almería en Corto,
Festival de Cine Iberoamericano de Huelva,
Muestra Cinematográfica del Atlántico Alcances,
Festival de cine y televisión de Islantilla,
Festival de Cine Africano de Tarifa.
All have articles in es-wiki. -->

Andalusia has a wide array of social customs, many of which have their roots in the Islamic traditions integrated into the culture of the area under Muslim rule. Each sub-region in Andalusia has its own unique customs that represent a fusion of Catholicism and local folklore. Traditional dress in all areas of Andalusia tends to be colorful and involve various head coverings reminiscent of a Muslim past. Cities like Almería have been influenced historically by both Granada+ and Murcia in the use of traditional head coverings. The ''sombrero de Labrador'', a worker's hat made of black velvet, is a signature style of the region.

In Cadiz, traditional costumes with rural origins are worn at bullfights and at parties on the large estates. The ''tablado flamenco'' dance and the accompanying ''cante jondo+'' vocal style originated in Granada. They are believed to have their roots in oriental, Gregorian, Moorish, and Jewish music. This music is most often performed by the gypsy Romani+, who are more numerous in Granada than anywhere else in Spain. One of the most distinctive cultural events in Andalusia is the Romeria de El Rocio+ in May. It consists of a pilgrimage to the Hermitage of El Rocío+ in the countryside near Almonte+, in honor of the Virgin of El Rocío+, an image of the Virgin and Child+,, visithuelva.com. Retrieved 15 April 2010. which was supposedly hidden from the Muslims during Moorish rule. In recent times the ''Romería'' has attracted roughly a million pilgrims each year.Eva Díaz Pérez, , ''El Mundo'', 2001-05-27. Retrieved 14 April 2010.

In Jaen+, the saeta+ is a revered form of Spanish religious song, whose form and style has evolved over many centuries. Saetas evoke strong emotion and are sung most often during public processions. ''Verdiales'', based upon the fandango+, are a flamenco music style and song form originating in Almogia, near Málaga. For this reason, the Verdiales are sometimes known as ''Fandangos de Málaga.'' The region also has a rich musical tradition of flamenco songs, or palos+ called cartageneras+. Seville celebrates ''Semana Santa+'', one of the better known religious events within Spain. During the festival, religious fraternities dress as penitents and carry large floats of lifelike wooden sculptures representing scenes of the Passion+, and images of the Virgin Mary. Sevillanas+, a type of old folk music sung and written in Seville and still very popular, are performed in fairs and festivals, along with an associated dance for the music, the ''Baile por sevillanas''. All the different regions of Andalusia have developed their own distinctive customs, but all share a connectedness to Catholicism and the region’s Muslim cultural past.




Andalusian Spanish is one of the most widely spoken forms of Spanish+ in Spain, and because of emigration patterns was very influential on American Spanish+. Rather than a single dialect, it is really a range of dialects sharing some common features; among these is the retention of more Arabic+ words than elsewhere in Spain, as well as some phonological differences+ compared with Standard Spanish+. The isogloss+es that mark the borders of Andalusian Spanish overlap to form a network of divergent boundaries, so there is no clear border for the linguistic region.


The territory now known as Andalusia fell within the sphere of influence of ancient Mediterranean mythological+ beliefs. Phoenician colonization brought the cults of Baal+ and Melqart+; the latter lasted into Roman times as Hercules+, mythical founder of both Cádiz and Seville. The Islote de Sancti Petri+ held the supposed tomb of Hercules, with representations of his Twelve labors+; the region was the traditional site of the tenth labor, obtaining the cattle of the monster Geryon+. Traditionally, the Pillars of Hercules+ flank the Strait of Gibraltar+. Clearly, the European pillar is the Rock of Gibraltar+; the African pillar was presumably either Monte Hacho+ in Ceuta+ or Jebel Musa+ in Morocco+. The Roman road+ that led from Cádiz to Rome was known by several names, one of them being ''Via Herculea+'', Hercules route returning from his tenth labor. The present coat of arms of Andalusia+ shows Hercules between two lions, with two pillars behind these figures.

The principal characteristic of the local popular form of Catholicism is devotion to the Virgin Mary+; Andalusia is sometimes known as ''la tierra de María Santísima'' ("the land of Most Holy Mary"). Also characteristic are the processions during Holy Week+, in which thousands of penitents+ (known as ''nazarenos'') sing saetas+. Andalusia is the site of such pilgrim+ destinations as the Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza+ in Andújar+ and the Hermitage of El Rocío+ in Almonte+.

While some trace the lineage of the Spanish Fighting Bull+ back to Roman times, today's fighting bulls in the Iberian peninsula and in the former Spanish Empire+ trace back to Andalusia in the 15th and 16th centuries.. In the year 2000, Andalusia's roughly 100 bullring+s hosted 1,139 ''corridas+''.

The oldest bullring still in use in Spain is the neoclassical+ ''Plaza de toros+'' in Ronda+, built in 1784. The Andalusian Autonomous Government sponsors the ''Rutas de Andalucía taurina'', a touristic route through the region centered on bullfighting.


The Andalusian festivals provide a showcase for popular arts and traditional costume. Among the most famous of these are the Seville Fair+ or ''Feria de Abril'' in Seville, now echoed by smaller fairs in Madrid and Barcelona, both of which have many Andalusian immigrants; the ''Feria de Agosto+'' in Málaga; the Feria de Jerez+ or ''Feria del Caballo'' in Jerez; the Festival of Corpus Christi+ in Granada; the Feria de Nuestra Señora de la Salud+ in Córdoba; the Columbian Festivals+ (''Fiestas Colombinas'') in Huelva; the Feria de la Virgen del Mar+ in Almería+; and the Feria de San Lucas+ in Jaén, among many others.

Festivals of a religious nature are a deep Andalusian tradition and are met with great popular fervor. There are numerous major festivals during Holy Week+. An annual pilgrimage brings a million visitors to the Hermitage of El Rocío in Almonte (population 16,914 in 2008); similarly large crowds visit the Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza in Andújar every April.

Other important festivals are the Carnival of Cádiz+ and the Fiesta de las Cruces+ or Cruz de mayo+ in Granada and Córdoba; in Córdoba this is combined with a competition for among the ''patios'' (courtyards) of the city.

Andalusia hosts an annual festival for the dance of Flamenco in the summer-time.


The Andalusian diet varies, especially between the coast and the interior, but in general is a Mediterranean diet+ based on olive oil+, cereal+s, legume+s, vegetable+s, fish+, dried fruit+s and nuts+, and meat+; there is also a great tradition of drinking wine+.

Fried fish+—''pescaíto frito''—and seafood+ are common on the coast and also eaten well into the interior under coastal influence. Atlantic bluefin tuna+ (''Thunnus thynnus'') from the Almadraba+ areas of the Gulf of Cádiz+, prawn+s from Sanlúcar de Barrameda+ (known as ''langostino de Sanlúcar''), and Deepwater Rose Shrimp+ (''Parapenaeus longirostris'') from Huelva are all highly prized. Fishing for the Transparent Goby or ''Chanquete'' (''Aphia minuta+''), a once-popular small fish from Málaga, is now banned because the techniques used to catch them trap too many immature fish of other species+.


The mountainous regions of the Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada produce cured ham+s, notably including ''jamón serrano+'' and ''jamón ibérico+''. These come from two different types of pig, (''jamón serrano'' from white pigs, the more expensive ''jamón ibérico'' from the Black Iberian pig+. There are several Denominaciones de Origen+, each with its own specifications including in just which microclimate+ region ham of a particular denomination must be cured. ''Plato alpujarreño+'' is another mountain specialty, a dish combining ham, sausage, sometimes other pork, egg, potatoes, and olive oil.

Confectionery+ is popular in Andalusia. Almond+s and honey+ are common ingredients. Many enclosed convent+s of nun+s make and sell pastries, especially Christmas pastries: ''mantecado+s'', ''polvorones+'', ''pestiño+s'', ''alfajor+es'', ''yemas de San Leandro+'', as well as ''churro+s'' or ''tejeringos'', meringue+ cookies (''merengadas''), and ''amarguillo+s''.

Cereal-based dishes include ''migas+ de harina'' in eastern Andalusia (a similar dish to couscous+ rather than the fried breadcrumb based ''migas'' elsewhere in Spain) and a sweeter, more aromatic porridge called ''poleá+'' in western Andalusia.
Vegetables form the basis of such dishes as ''alboronía+'' (similar to ''ratatouille'') and the chopped salad known as ''pipirrana+'' or ''piriñaca''. Hot and cold soups based in olive oil, garlic, bread, tomato and peppers include ''gazpacho+'', ''salmorejo+'', ''porra antequerana+'', ''ajo caliente+'', ''sopa campera+'', or—using almonds instead of tomato—''ajoblanco+''.

Wine has a privileged place at the Andalusian table. Andalusian wines are known worldwide, especially fortified wine+s such as sherry+ (''jerez''), aged in solera+s. These are enormously varied; for example, dry sherry may be the very distinct ''fino+'', ''manzanilla+'', ''amontillado+'', ''oloroso+'', or ''Palo Cortado+'' and each of these varieties can each be sweetened with Pedro Ximénez+ or Moscatel+ to produce a different variety of sweet sherry. Besides sherry, Andalucía has five other Denominaciones de Origen+ for wine: D.O. Condado de Huelva+, D.O. Manzanilla-Sanlúcar de Barrameda+, D.O. Málaga+, D.O. Montilla-Moriles+, and D.O. Sierras de Málaga+.For greater specificity on the Denominaciones de Origen, see , in Spanish. Most Andalusian wine comes from one of these regions, but there are other historic wines without a Protected Geographical Status+, for example Tintilla de Rota+, Pajarete+, Moscatel de Chipiona+ and Mosto de Umbrete+.

Andalusia also produces D.O. vinegar+ and brandy+: D.O. Vinagre de Jerez+ and D.O. Brandy de Jerez+.


multiple image vertical
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|alt1=''Sombreros cordobeses''
|caption1=''Sombreros cordobeses.''

|alt2=''Sombrero de catite''
|caption2=''Sombrero de catite.''

The traditional dress of 18th century Andalusia was strongly influenced by ''majismo+'' within the context of ''casticismo+'' (purism, traditionalism, authenticity). The archetype of the ''majo'' and ''maja'' was that of a bold, pure Spaniard from a lower-class background, somewhat flamboyant in his or her style of dress. This emulation of lower-class dress also extended to imitating the clothes of brigands and Romani+ ("Gypsy") women.


The Museum of Arts and Traditions of Sevilla+
Andalusia has a great artisan tradition in tile+, leather+ (''see Shell cordovan+''), weaving+ (especially of the heavy ''jarapa+'' cloth), marquetry+, and ceramic+s (especially in Jaén, Granada, and Almería), lace+ (especially Granada and Huelva), embroidery+ (in Andévalo+), ironwork+, woodworking+, and basketry+ in wicker+, many of these traditions a heritage of the long period of Muslim rule.

Andalusia is also known for its dogs, particularly the Andalusian Hound+, which was originally bred in the region. Dogs, not just andalusian hounds, are very popular in the region.

Andalusian equestrianism, institutionalized in the Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art+ is known well beyond the borders of Spain. The Andalusian horse+ is strongly built, compact yet elegant, distinguished in the area of dressage+ and show jumping+, and is also an excellent horse for driving+. They are known for their elegant "dancing" gait+.



In Andalusia, as throughout Spain, football+ is the predominant sport. Introduced to Spain by British+ men who worked in mining for Rio Tinto+ in the province of Huelva, the sport soon became popular with the local population. As Spain's oldest existing football club, Recreativo de Huelva+, founded 1889, is known as ''El Decano'' ("the Dean").

As of 2014, five Andalusian teams compete in Spain's First Division ''La Liga+'': Córdoba CF+, Granada CF+, Málaga CF+, Sevilla FC+ and UD Almería+. This is the most of any region. Two more, Recreativo de Huelva+ – Spain's oldest club – and Real Betis+ play in the Segunda División+. Betis won La Liga in 1934–35+ and Sevilla in the 1945–46 season.

The Andalusia autonomous football team+ is not in any league, and plays only friendly matches+. In recent years, they have played mostly during the Christmas break of the football leagues. They play mostly against national teams from other countries, but would not be eligible for international league play, where Spain is represented by a single national team.

In recent decades, basketball+ has become increasingly popular, with CB Málaga+, also known as '''Unicaja Málaga''' who have won the Liga ACB+ in 2007 and the Korać Cup+ in 2001 and usually play the Euroleague+, CB Sevilla+ (Banca Cívica) and CB Granada+ competing at the top level in the Liga ACB+.

Unlike basketball, handball+ has never really taken off in Andalusia. There are two Andalusian teams in the Liga Asobal+, Spain's premier handball league: BM Antequera+ and BM Ciudad de Almería+ (Keymare Almería). Neither has a following or media coverage comparable to football or basketball, and neither is a national contender.

Andalusia's strongest showing in sports has been in table tennis+. There are two professional teams: Cajasur Priego TM+ and Caja Granada TM+, the latter being Spain's leading table tennis team, with more than 20 league championships in nearly consecutive years and 14 consecutive Copas del Rey, dominating the Liga ENEBÉ+. Cajasur is also one of the league's leading teams.

220 Andalusian athletes have competed in a total of 16 summer or winter Olympic Games+. The first was Leopoldo Sáinz de la Maza+, part of the silver-medal-winning polo+ team at the 1920 Summer Olympics+ in Antwerp+, Belgium+.

In all, Andalusians have won 6 gold medals, 11 silver, and 2 bronze. Winners of multiple medals include the Cordoban boxer+ Rafael Lozano+ (bronze in the 1996 Summer Olympics+ at Atlanta, Georgia+, USA and silver in the 2000 Summer Olympics+ in Sydney+, Australia); sailor Theresa Zabell+, Malagueña by adoption (gold medals at Barcelona+ in 1992+ and Atlanta in 1996). Other notable winners have been Granadan tennis+ player Manuel Orantes+ (silver in the men's singles of the demonstration tournament+ in Mexico City+ in 1968+), Jerezano riders Ignacio Rambla+ and Rafael Soto+ (silver in dressage+ in Athens+ in 2004+) and the racewalker+ Paquillo Fernández+ from Guadix+ (silver in Athens+ in 2004+).

The largest number of Olympic appearances were by the Malagueña swimmer María Peláez+ (five appearances), the Granadan skier María José Rienda+ (four), the Sevillian rider Luis Astolfi+ (four), and the Sevillian rower Fernando Climent Huerta+ (four, including a silver at Los Angeles+, California+, USA in 1984+.

Seville has been a pre-candidate to host the Summer Olympics in two occasions, 2004 and 2008, and Granada has been a pre-candidate to host the winter Olympics; neither has ever succeeded in its candidature. The ski resort of Sierra Nevada+, near Granada, has however hosted the 1996 Alpine World Ski Championships+, and Granada will host the 2015 Winter Universiade+.

Other sporting events in Andalusia include surfing+, kitesurfing+ and windsurfing+ competitions at Tarifa+, various golf+ tournaments at courses along the coast, and horse racing+ and polo at several locations in the interior. Andalusia hosted the 1999 World Championships in Athletics+ (Seville), the 2005 Mediterranean Games+ (Almería) and the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996+ (Granada), among other major events. There is also the annual Vuelta a Andalucía+ bicycle road race and the Linares chess tournament+.

Andalusia has a sister region+ relationship with Buenos Aires+, Argentina+ since 2001.


* Andalusian nationalism+
* Andalusian people+
* List of Andalusians+
* Roman Bética Route+
* White Towns of Andalusia+





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Administrative divisions of Spain:

Andalusia+ Andalusia (, , , ; ) is the most populous and the second largest in area of the autonomous communities in Spain.
Andalusian horse+ The Andalusian, also known as the Pure Spanish Horse or PRE (Pura Raza Española), is a horse breed from the Iberian Peninsula, where its ancestors have lived for thousands of years.
Andalusian Hound+ The Andalusian hound () is a dog breed originating in Spain, especially Andalusia. Dogs are similar to other Iberian breeds such as the Ibizan Hound, the Portuguese Podengo, the Podenco Canario and the Maneto.
Andalusian cuisine+ Andalusian cuisine is rather varied, corresponding to a region that is itself extensive and varied. Notwithstanding that, the cuisine of Andalusia is characterized by gazpacho, fried fish (often called pescaíto frito in the local vernacular), the jamones of Jabugo, Valle de los Pedroches and Trevélez, and the wines of Jerez, particularly sherry.
Andalusians+ The Andalusians (Spanish: Andaluces) are the people of the southern region in Spain approximated by what is now called Andalusia.
Andalusia, Illinois+ Andalusia Island is a village in Rock Island County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,178 at the 2010 census, an increase from 1,050 in 2000.
Andalusian Party+ The Andalusian Party (, PA) is an Andalusian nationalist-regionalist centre-left political party from Andalusia (Spain), with an important presence in provinces such as Cádiz and Seville although in the past they have stood in other provinces and even won seats in Barcelona to the Catalan Regional Assembly.
Andalusian Arabic+ Andalusian Arabic, also known more usually as Andalusi Arabic or Spanish Arabic or Hispano-Arabic, was a variety or were varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) under Muslim rule.
Andalusian Spanish+ The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz, ; western pronunciation:). are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla and Gibraltar.
 Andalusian+ Andalusian may refer to: