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about|the Temple in Thanjavur|the temple in Gangaikonda Cholapuram|Brihadeeswarar Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram

Hindu temple
Brihadeeswarar Temple
Peruvudaiyaar Kovil
Brihadeshwaran Temple
Big Temple

View of the entire temple complex.
India Tamil Nadu
Location in Tamil Nadu
1046 | lats =58 | latNS =
79 07 54| longEW =
Tamil Nadu+
Maha Shivaratiri+
Tamil architecture+
10th century AD
Raja Raja Chola I+

'''Brihadeshwara Temple''' (locally known as ''Tanjai Periya Kovil'') is a Hindu temple+ dedicated to Shiva+ located in Thanjavur+ in the Indian state+ of Tamil Nadu+. It is also known as ''RajaRajeswara Temple'' ''Rajarajeswaram'' and Brihadeshwara Temple. It is one of the largest temples in India and is an example of Tamil architecture+ during the Chola period+. Built by Raja Raja Chola I+ and completed in 1010 CE, the temple turned 1000 years old in 2010.The architect and engineer of the temple, Kunjara Mallan Raja Raja Perumthachan+ is revered today as a father figure to all craftsmen in his homeland of present-day Central Kerala+. The temple is part of the UNESCO+ World Heritage Site+ known as the "Great Living Chola Temples+", with the other two being the Brihadeeswarar Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram+ and Airavatesvara temple+.

The temple stands amidst fortified walls that were probably added in the 16th century. The vimanam+ (temple tower) is high and is one of the tallest in the world. The Kumbam+ (the apex or the bulbous structure on the top) weighs around 80 tons. There is a big statue of Nandi+ (sacred bull), carved out of a single rock measuring about long and high at the entrance. The entire temple structure is made out of granite+, the nearest sources of which are about 60 km to the west of temple. The temple is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Tamil Nadu+.

The Brihadeshwarar temple was built to grace the throne of the Chola+ empire by the Tamil emperor Arulmozhivarman, popularly called Rajaraja Chola I+, in compliance to a command given to him in a dream.Encyclopaedia of Political Parties By Ralhan, O. P. One of the first great Tamil Chola building projects, the temple's foundations were laid out in 1002 CE. An axial+ and symmetrical+ geometry+ rules the temple layout.Thapar 2004, pp.43, 52–53 Temples from this period and the following two centuries are an expression of the Tamilars (Chola) wealth, power and artistic expertise. The emergence of such features as the multifaceted column+s with projecting square capitals+ signal the arrival of the new Chola style.Mitchell 1988, pp. 145–148

Intended to display the emperor's vision of his power and his relationship to the universal order, the temple was the site of the major royal ceremonies such as anointing the emperor and linking him with its deity, Shiva+, and the daily rituals of the deities were mirrored by those of the king. It is an architectural example showcasing the pure form of the Dravida+ type of temple architecture and representative of the Chola Empire+ ideology and the Tamil+ civilisation in Southern India+. The temple "testifies the brilliant achievements of the Chola in architecture, sculpture, painting and bronze casting."

The architect and engineer of the temple was Kunjara Mallan Raja Raja Rama Perunthachan+ as stated in inscriptions found at the temple.
The solid base of the temple raises about 5 metres (16 feet), above which stone deities and representatives of Shiva dance.Man 1999, p. 104 The big Nandi+ (bull), weighing about 20 tonnes is made of a single stone and is about 2 m in height, 6 m in length and 2.5 m in width. The presiding deity of ''lingam+'' is 3.7m tall. The ''prakaram+'' (outer precincts of the temple) measures 240m by 125m. The outer wall of the upper storey is carved with 108 dance ''karana''s – postures of Bharathanatyam+, the classical dance of Tamil Nadu. The shrine of Goddess was added by Pandyas+ during the 13th century, Subramanya Shrine by Vijayanagara rulers+ and the Vinayaka shrine was renovated by Maratha rulers. There were significant additions from the Thanjavur Nayaks+.

The temple complex sits on the banks of a river that was channelled to make a moat around the complex's outer walls, the walls being built like a fortress. The complex is made up of many structures that are aligned axially+. The complex can be entered either on one axis through a five-story gopuram+ or with a second access directly to the huge main quadrangle through a smaller free-standing gopuram+. The massive size of the main Vimanam (Shikhara+) is ca. 60.96 meters high, with 16 elaborately articulated+ stories, and dominates the main quadrangle. Pilaster+, piers(a raised structure), and attached columns+ are placed rhythmically covering every surface of the Vimana+m.Ching 2007, pp. 338–339 The gopuram+ of the main entrance is 30 m high, smaller than the vimana+. It is unusual in the dravidian architecture+ where the gopurams are generally the main towers and taller than the vimanam.

A first rectangular surrounding wall, 270 m by 140 m, marks the outer boundary. The main temple is in the center of the spacious quadrangle composed of a sanctuary, a Nandi+, a pillared hall and an assembly hall (mandapa+s), and many sub-shrine+s. The most important part of the temple is the inner mandapa which is surrounded by massive walls that are divided into levels by sharply cut sculptures and pilaster+s providing deep bays and recesses. Each side of the sanctuary has a bay emphasising the principle cult icons. The karuvarai, a Tamil+ word meaning the interior of the sanctum sanctorum+, is the inner most sanctum and focus of the temple where an image of the primary deity+, Shiva, resides. Inside is a huge stone linga+. The word Karuvarai means "womb chamber" from Tamil+ word ''karu'' for foetus. Only priests are allowed to enter this inner-most chamber.

In the Dravida+ style, the Karuvarai takes the form of a miniature vimana+ with other features exclusive to southern Indian temple architecture such as the inner wall together with the outer wall creating a pradakshina+ around the garbhagriha for circumambulation+ (pradakshina+). The entrance is highly decorated. The inside chamber housing the image of the god is the sanctum sanctorum+, the garbhagriha+. The garbhagriha is square and sits on a plinth+, its location calculated to be a point of total equilibrium and harmony as it is representative of a microcosm of the universe. In the center is placed the image of the deity. The royal bathing-hall where Rajaraja the great gave gifts is to the east of the hall of Irumudi-Soran.

The inner mandapa leads out to a rectangular mandapa and then to a twenty-columned porch+ with three staircases leading down. Sharing the same stone plinth+ is a small open mandapa dedicated to Nandi, Shiva's sacred bull mount.

The "moolavar" or prime deity of the Brihadeeswarar Temple is Shiva+. All deities, particularly those placed in the niches of the outer wall (Koshta Moorthigal) like Dakshinamurthy+, Surya+, Chandra+ are of huge size. The Brihadiswarar temple is one of the rare temples which has idols for "Ashta-dikpaalakas" (Guardians of the directions+) – Indra+, Agni+, Yama+, Nirṛti, Varuṇa+, Vāyu+, Kubera+, Īśāna+ – each of whom was originally represented by a life-sized statue, approximately 6 feet tall, enshrined in a separate temple located in the respective direction. (Only Agni, Varuṇa, Vāyu and Īśāna are preserved in situ.)

Surrounding the main temple are two walled enclosures. The outer wall is high, defining the temple complex area. Here is the massive gopuram or gateway mentioned above. Within this a portico+, a barrel vault+ed gorpuram with over 400 pillars+, is enclosed by a high wall interspersed with huge gopurams axially lined up to the main temple.

A widely held belief is that the shadow of the Vimana never falls on the ground. . However, several photographs exist showing the shadow on the ground. The temple is said to be made up of about 60,000 tons of granite. The capstone itself is made of four pieces of granite and weighs about 20 tons., on top of the main ''gopuram'' is believed to have been taken to the top by creating an inclined slope to the height of 66m to the top of the ''gopuram''.

multiple image

|caption1=This mural was originally thought to represent Rajaraja and his guru. This has been contested now.

|caption2=Mural at Brihadeeswarar temple,Tanjavur. This is painting style that evolved in the town

The temple has Chola frescoes on the walls around the sanctum sanctorum potryaing Shiva in action, destroying demonic forts, dancing and sending a white elephant to transport a devotee to heaven. These frescoes, discovered in the 1940s by S. K. Govindasami of the Annamalai University, portray the mythological episodes of the journey of Saint Sundarar+ and the Chera+ King to heaven, the battle scene of Tripurantaka (Lord Siva) with ''Asuras'' (demons). The Chola artists have proved their mettle by portraying even the ''Asura'' women with a sense of beauty. Some of the paintings in the sanctum sanctorum and the walls in the passage had been damaged because of the soot that had deposited on them once upon a time. Owing to the continuous exposure to smoke and soot from the lamps and burning of camphor in the sanctum sanctorum over a period of centuries certain parts of the Chola paintings on the circumambulatory passage walls had been badly damaged. The Tanjore Nayak+ kings replaced them with a few paintings of their own, about 400 years ago. The Archaeological Survey of India+, for the first time in the world, used its unique de-stucco process to restore 16 Nayak paintings, which were superimposed on 1000-year-old Chola frescoes. These 400-year-old paintings have been mounted on fibre glass boards, displayed at a separate pavilion.

Since its consecration in 1010 AD by Raja Raja Chola I+, the temple maintained a staff of 1000 people in various capacities with 400 being temple dancersVarious 2007, pp. 65–66 Besides the Brahmin+ priests, these included record-keepers, musicians, scholars, and craftsman of every type as well as housekeeping staff. In those days the temple was a hub of business activities for the flower, milk, oil, and ghee merchants, all of whom made a regular supply of their respective goods for the temple for its poojas+ and during festival seasons. Moreover, as evidenced by the inscriptions that found in the compound wall of this temple, the temple had always served as a platform for dancers who excelled in the traditional dance form of Bharatnatyam+.

Built in the year 1010 CE by Raja Raja Chola in Thanjavur, Brihadeeswarar Temple popularly known as the 'Big Temple' turned 1000 years old in September 2010. To celebrate the 1000th year of the grand structure, the state government and the town held many cultural events. It was to recall the 275th day of his 25th regal year (1010 CE) when Raja Raja Chola (985–1014 CE) handed over a gold-plated kalasam+ (copper pot or finial+) for the final consecration to crown the vimana+, the 59.82-metre tall tower above the sanctum. author= BBC News augue| accessdate=25 September 2010 | date=25 September 2010

To mark the occasion, the state government organised a Bharathanatyam+ Yajna+, classical dance show under noted dancer Padma Subramaniam+. It was jointly organised by the Association of Bharatanatyam Artistes of India (ABHAI) and the Brhan Natyanjali Trust, Thanjavur. To mark the 1000th year anniversary of the building, 1000 dancers from New Delhi, Mumbai+, Pune+, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka+, Kerala, Singapore, Malaysia and the US danced in concert to the recorded 11 verses of divine music Thiruvichaippa (ninth of Thirumurai+) composed by Karuvur Thevar (the guru of Raja Raja Chola) named Tiruvisaippa. The small town turned into a cultural hub for two days beginning 26 September 2010 as street performers and dancers performed throughout the town.

Multiple image

|caption1=INR: 1000 currency note released by Reserve Bank of India on 1 April 1954 to honour the historic Brihadeeswarar Temple, a UNESCO World heritage site

|caption2=A INR: 5 Special Commemorative coin released by Reserve Bank of India to mark the millennium year celebrations of the famous Brihadeeswarar Temple built by the great Chola ruler Raja Raja Chola I
On 26 September 2010 (Big Temple's fifth day of millennium celebrations), as a recognition of Big Temple's contribution to the country's cultural, architectural, epigraphical history, a special INR: 5 postage stamp featuring the 216-feet tall giant Raja Gopuram was released by India Post+.

The Reserve Bank of India+ commemorated the event by releasing a INR: 5 coin with the model of temple embossed on it. A Raja+, Cabinet Minister of Communications and Information Technology+ released the esteemed Brihadeeswarar Temple special stamp, the first of which was received by G K Vasan+, Cabinet Minister of Shipping+.

Mumbai Mint+ issued Rs 1000 Commemorative Coin with the same picture as on the Rs 5 coin. It was the first 1000 Rupees coin to be released in the Republic of India coinage. This coin was a Non Circulative Legal Tender (NCLT).

On 1 April 1954, the Reserve Bank of India+ released a INR: 1000 currency note featuring a panoramic view of the Brihadeeswarar Temple marking its cultural heritage and significance. In 1975, the then government led by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi+ demonetised+ all INR: 1,000 currency notes in an effort to curtail black money+. These notes are now popular among collectors.

In 2010, the then Tamil Nadu chief minister, M Karunanidhi+ renamed Semmai Paddy+, a type of high productivity paddy variant, as ''Raja Rajan-1000'' to mark the millennial year of the constructor of the temple, Raja Raja Cholan+.

Brihadeeswarar temple finds mention in many of the contemporary works of the period like ''Muvar Ula'' and ''Kalingathuparani''. The temple believed to have emerged as a centre of social, economical and political activities. Cultural activities like music, dance and art in the form of bronzes were encouraged and staged in the temple.

Experts believe that the Dravidian architecture+ attained its supreme form of expression in the temple and it successor, the Brihadeeswarar Temple, Gangaikondacholapuram+. The temple is declared as a heritage monument and administered by the Archaeological Survey of India+ as a protected monument. The temple is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Tamil Nadu+. The temple is declared a CE+ UNESCO+ World Heritage Site+, along with the Brihadeeswara Temple at Gangaikondacholapuram and Airavatesvara temple+ at Darasuram+ that are referred as the Great Living Chola Temples+. The temple was added to the list of Great Living Chola Temples+ in the year 2004. All of the three temples were built by the Cholas between the 10th and 12th centuries CE and have a lot of similarities. The temples are classified as "Great Living Chola temples" as the temples are alive in cultural aspects and worship practises in modern times.

Kalki+, a renowned Tamil novelist, has written a historical novel named ''Ponniyin Selvan+'', based on the life of Raja Raja Chola I+. Balakumaran+, another Tamil author has written a novel named ''Udaiyar+'' themed on the life of Raja Raja Chola I and the construction of the Brihadeeswarar temple.

The Temple car+ was rolled out on its trial run from opposite to Sri Ramar+ temple on 20 April 2015 witnessed by a large number of people. Nine days later, the maiden procession of the temple car was held, with the deity's idols on top on 29 April 2015. This was the first such procession in this temple held in the past hundred years.

* Raja Raja Chola I+
* Chola Dynasty+

* bookChing2007A Global History of Architecture
338–339 | isbn=0-471-26892-5
* book
| last =Mitchell
| first =George
The Hindu Temple
| publisher =University of Chicago Press
| year =1988
| location =Chicago
* bookJohnMan1999Atlas of the Year 1000| edition=
Penguin Books0-7946-0011-5|url=
* bookBindaThapar2004Introduction to Indian Architecture| edition=
Periplus Editions43, 52–530-7946-0011-5


World Heritage Sites in India:

Brihadeeswarar Temple+ Brihadeshwara Temple (locally known as Tanjai Periya Kovil) is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Thanjavur in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Brihadeeswarar Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram+ Brihadeshwara Temple (also called Gangaikonda Cholapuram temple and Gangaikondacholeeswaram) is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Ariyalur district, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Brihadeeswarar Temple fire+ Brihadeeswarar Temple fire is a fire accident that occurred during the consecration of the Brihadeeswarar Temple on 7 June 1997 in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.