Chola dynasty சோழப் பேரரசு
South and South-East Asia
Rise of the medieval Cholas
Empire at its greatest extent
The '''Chola dynasty''' was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India+. The earliest datable references to this Tamil+ dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Asoka+, of the Maurya Empire+. As one of the Three Crowned Kings+, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.
The Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature+ and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture. The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity.Vasudevan, pp 20–22 They pioneered a centralised form of government+ and established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia+ and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia+.
The Cholas are also known as the ''Choda''.
A commonly held view is that ''Chola'' is, like ''Chera'' and ''Pandya'', the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity. The annotator Parimelazhagar+ said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage (such as the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras) are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are ''Killi'' (கிள்ளி), ''Valavan'' (வளவன்) and ''Sembiyan'' (செம்பியன்). ''Killi'' perhaps comes from the Tamil ''kil'' (கிள்) meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli+, Nalankilli+ and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times. ''Valavan'' is most probably connected with "''valam''" (வளம்) – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. ''Sembiyan'' is generally taken to mean a descendant of Shibi+ – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka+ among the Jataka+ stories of Buddhism+. In Tamil lexicon ''Chola'' means ''Soazhi'' or ''Saei'' denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of ''Pandya'' or the old country.
There is very little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions+. The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka+ (inscribed 273 BCE–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.
The history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas+ of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya+ (c. 848), the dynasty of Vijayalaya, and finally the Later Chola+ dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century. Sastri|2002|pp=170-172|ps=
The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars generally agree that this literature belongs to the second or first few centuries of the common era+. The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, and at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived. It records the names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them.
The Sangam literature also records legends about mythical Chola kings. Two names are prominent among those Chola kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola+ and Kocengannan+. Urayur+ (now a part of Thiruchirapalli+) was their oldest capital. Kaveripattinam+ also served as an early Chola capital. The ''Mahavamsa+'' mentions that an ethnic Tamil adventurer, a Chola prince known as Elara+, invaded the island Sri Lanka around 235 BCE.
There is not much information about the transition period of around three centuries from the end of the Sangam age (c. 300) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallava+s dominated the Tamil country. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras+ invaded Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled during that time. They were displaced by the Pallava dynasty and the Pandyan dynasty in the 6th century. Little is known of the fate of the Cholas during the succeeding three centuries until the accession of Vijayalaya in the second quarter of the 9th century.
Epigraphy+ and literature provide few glimpses of the transformations that came over this line of kings during this long interval. What is certain is that when the power of the Cholas fell to its lowest ebb and that of the Pandyas and Pallavas rose to the north and south of them, Despite this loss in influence and power, it is unlikely that the Cholas lost total grip of the territory around Uraiyur, their old capital, as Vijayalaya, when he rose to prominence hailed from that area.
Around the 7th century, a Chola kingdom flourished in present-day Andhra Pradesh. These Telugu Cholas+ traced their descent to the early Sangam Cholas. However, it is not known if they had any relation to the early Cholas. It is possible that a branch of the Tamil Cholas migrated north during the time of the Pallavas to establish a kingdom of their own, away from the dominating influences of the Pandyas and Pallavas. The Chinese+ pilgrim Xuanzang+, who spent several months in Kanchipuram+ during 639–640 writes about the "kingdom of Culi-ya", in an apparent reference to these Telugu Cholas.
Vijayalaya was the founder of the Imperial Chola dynasty which was the beginning of one of the most splendid Empires in Indian history. Vijayalaya+, possibly a feudatory of the Pallava dynasty, took an opportunity arising out of a conflict between the Pandya dynasty and Pallava dynasty in c. 850, captured Thanjavur+ from Muttarayar+, and established the imperial line of the medieval Chola Dynasty. Thanjavur became the capital of the Imperial Chola Dynasty.
The Chola dynasty was at the peak of its influence and power during the medieval period. Through their leadership and vision, Chola kings expanded their territory and influence. The second Chola King, Aditya I+, caused the demise of the Pallava dynasty and defeated the Pandyan dynasty of Madurai+ in 885, occupied large parts of the Kannada country, and had marital ties with the Western Ganga dynasty. In 925, his son Parantaka I+ conquered Sri Lanka (known as Ilangai).
Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I were the greatest rulers of the Chola dynasty, extending it beyond the traditional limits of a Tamil kingdom. Rajaraja Chola I was a ruler with inexhaustible energy, and he applied himself to the task of governance with the same zeal that he had shown in waging wars. He integrated his empire into a tight administrative grid under royal control, and at the same time strengthened local self-government. Therefore, he conducted a land survey in 1000 CE to effectively marshall the resources of his empire. He also built the Brihadeeswarar Temple+ in 1010 CE.
Rajendra Chola I conquered Odisha+ and his armies continued to march further north and defeated the forces of the Pala Dynasty+ of Bengal+ and reached the Ganges river in north India. Rajendra Chola I built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram+ to celebrate his victories in northern India. Rajendra Chola I successfully invaded Srivijaya which led to the decline of the empire there. This expedition had such a great impression to the Malay people+ of the medieval period that his name was mentioned in the corrupted form as Raja Chulan in the medieval Malay chronicle ''Sejarah Melayu''. He also completed the conquest of the island of Sri Lanka and took the Sinhala king Mahinda V as a prisoner, in addition to his conquests of Rattapadi (territories of the Rashtrakutas, Chalukya country, Talakkad+, and Kolar+, where the Kolaramma temple still has his portrait statue) in Kannada country. Rajendra's territories included the area falling on the Ganges-Hooghly-Damodar basin, as well as Sri Lanka and Maldives. The kingdoms along the east coast of India up to the river Ganges acknowledged Chola suzerainty. Three diplomatic missions were sent to China in 1016, 1033, and 1077.
The Western Chalukya Empire+ under Satyashraya+ and Someshvara I+ tried to wriggle out of Chola domination from time to time, primarily due to the Chola influence in the Vengi+ kingdom. With the occupation of Dharwar in North Central Karnataka by the Hoysalas+ under Vishnuvardhana+, where he based himself with his son Narasimha I in-charge at the Hoysala capital Dwarasamudra around 1149, and with the Kalachuris+ occupying the Chalukyan capital for over 35 years from around 1150–1151, the Chalukya kingdom was already starting to dissolve.
The Cholas under Kulothunga Chola III+ even collaborated to the herald the dissolution of the Chalukyas by aiding Hoysalas under Veera Ballala II+, the son-in-law of the Chola monarch, and defeated the Western Chalukyas in a series of wars with Someshvara IV+ between 1185–1190. The last Chalukya king's territories did not even include the erstwhile Chalukyan capitals Badami, Manyakheta or Kalyani. That was the final dissolution of Chalukyan power though the Chalukyas existed only in name since 1135–1140. But the Cholas remained stable until 1215, were absorbed by the Pandyan empire and ceased to exist by 1279.
On the other hand, throughout the period from 1150–1280, the staunchest opponents of the Cholas were Pandya princes who tried to win independence for their traditional territories. This period saw constant warfare between the Cholas and the Pandyas. The Cholas also fought regular wars with the Eastern Gangas+ of Kalinga, protected Vengi though it remained largely independent under Chola control, and had domination of the entire eastern coast with their feudatories the Telugu Cholas, Velananti Cholas, Renandu Cholas etc. who also always aided the Cholas in their successful campaigns against the Chalukyas and levying tribute on the Kannada kingdoms and fought constantly with the Sinhala+s, who attempted to overthrow the Chola occupation of Lanka+, but until the time of the Later Chola king Kulottunga I the Cholas had firm control over Lanka. A Later Chola king, Rajadhiraja Chola II+, was strong enough to prevail over a confederation of five Pandya princes who were aided by their traditional friend, the king of Lanka, this once again gave control of Lanka to the Cholas despite the fact that they were not strong under the resolute Rajadhiraja Chola II. However, his successor, the last great Chola monarch Kulottunga Chola III+ reinforced the hold of the Cholas by quelling rebellion and disturbances in Lanka and Madurai, defeated Hoysala generals under Veera Ballala II in Karuvur, in addition to holding on to his traditional territories in Tamil country, Eastern Gangavadi, Draksharama, Vengi and Kalinga. After this, he entered into a marital alliance with Veera Ballala II (with Ballala's marriage to a Chola princess) and his relationship with Hoysalas seems to have become friendlier.
During the reign of Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the Chola armies invaded Sri Lanka, the Maldives and some parts of Southeast Asia like Malaysia, Indonesia and Southern Thailand of the Srivijaya Empire in the 11th century. Rajaraja Chola I launched several naval campaigns that resulted in the capture of Sri Lanka, Maldives and the Malabar Coast. In 1025, Rajendra Chola launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya and against the Burmese kingdom of Pegu, and conquered parts of Srivijaya in Malaysia and Indonesia and the Tambralinga+ kingdom in Southern Thailand and occupied it for some time. A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola, who conquered Kedah+ in Malaysia of Srivijaya in the late 11th century.
Marital and political alliances between the Eastern Chalukyas+ began during the reign of Rajaraja following his invasion of Vengi. Rajaraja Chola's daughter married Chalukya prince Vimaladitya
The Later Chola dynasty was led by capable rulers such as Kulothunga Chola I, his son Vikrama Chola+, other successors like Rajaraja Chola II, Rajadhiraja Chola II, and Kulothunga Chola III, who conquered Kalinga, Ilam+, and Kataha+. However, the rule of the later Cholas between 1218, starting with Rajaraja Chola II+, to the last emperor Rajendra Chola III+ was not as strong as those of the emperors between 850–1215. Around 1118, they lost control of Vengi to the Western Chalukya and Gangavadi (southern Mysore+ districts) to the Hoysala Empire+. However, these were only temporary setbacks, because immediately following the accession of king Vikrama Chola, the son and successor of Kulothunga Chola I, the Cholas lost no time in recovering the province of Vengi by defeating Chalukya Someshvara III and also recovering Gangavadi from the Hoysalas. The Chola Empire, though not as strong as between 850–1150, was still largely territorially intact under Rajaraja Chola II (1146–1175) a fact attested by the construction and completion of the third grand Chola architectural marvel, the chariot-shaped Airavatesvara Temple+ at Dharasuram on the outskirts of modern Kumbakonam. Chola administration and territorial integrity until the rule of Kulothunga Chola III was stable and very prosperous up to 1215, but during his rule itself, the decline of the Chola power started following his defeat by Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II in 1215–16. Subsequently, the Cholas also lost control of the island of Lanka and were driven out by the revival of Sinhala power.
In continuation of the decline, also marked by the resurgence of the Pandyan dynasty as the most powerful rulers in South India, a lack of a controlling central administration in its erstwhile-Pandyan territories prompted a number of claimants to the Pandya throne to cause a civil war in which the Sinhalas and the Cholas were involved by proxy. Details of the Pandyan civil war and the role played by the Cholas and Sinhalas, are present in the ''Mahavamsa+'' as well as the Pallavarayanpettai Inscriptions.
In the 12th century, the maharajah of Chola sent Sri Lumay, also known as Rajamuda Lumaya, to the central islands of present-day Philippines to establish a base for expeditionary forces. He was a minor prince of the Chola dynasty which occupied Sumatra at the time. He later rebelled and established his own independent state, which would become the Rajahnate of Cebu+.
The Cholas, under Rajaraja Chola III+ and later, his successor Rajendra Chola III, were quite weak and therefore, experienced continuous trouble. One feudatory, the Kadava+ chieftain Kopperunchinga I+, even held Rajaraja Chola III as hostage for sometime. At the close of the 12th century, the growing influence of the Hoysalas replaced the declining Chalukyas as the main player in the Kannada country, but they too faced constant trouble from the Seunas and the Kalachuris, who were occupying Chalukya capital because those empires were their new rivals. So naturally, the Hoysalas found it convenient to have friendly relations with the Cholas from the time of Kulothunga Chola III, who had defeated Hoysala Veera Ballala II, who had subsequent marital relations with the Chola monarch. This continued during the time of Rajaraja Chola III the son and successor of Kulothunga Chola III
The Pandyas in the south had risen to the rank of a great power who ultimately banished the Hoysalas from Malanadu or Kannada country, who were allies of the Cholas from Tamil country and the demise of the Cholas themselves ultimately was caused by the Pandyas in 1279. The Pandyas first steadily gained control of the Tamil country as well as territories in Sri Lanka, Chera country, Telugu country under Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II and his able successor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan+ before inflicting several defeats on the joint forces of the Cholas under Rajaraja Chola III, his successor Rajendra Chola III and the Hoysalas under Someshwara, his son Ramanatha Rajendra III tried to survive by aligning with the Kadava Pallavas and the Hoysalas in turn in order to counter the constantly rising power of the Pandyans who were the major players in the Tamil country from 1215 and had intelligently consolidated their position in Madurai-Rameswaram-Ilam-Cheranadu and Kanniyakumari belt, and had been steadily increasing their territories in the Kaveri belt between Dindigul-Tiruchy-Karur-Satyamangalam as well as in the Kaveri Delta i.e., Thanjavur-Mayuram-Chidambaram-Vriddhachalam-Kanchi, finally marching all the way up to Arcot—Tirumalai-Nellore-Visayawadai-Vengi-Kalingam belt by 1250.
The Pandyas steadily routed both the Hoysalas and the Cholas. They also dispossessed the Hoysalas, who had been overestimating their power by interfering in the politics of Tamil country by routing them under Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan at Kannanur Kuppam and chased them back to the Mysore plateau and stopped the war only thereafter. At the close of Rajendra's reign, the Pandyan empire was at the height of prosperity and had taken the place of the Chola empire in the eyes of the foreign observers. The last recorded date of Rajendra III is 1279. There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince. The Hoysalas were routed from Kannanur Kuppam around 1279 by Kulasekhara Pandiyan and in the same war the last Chola emperor Rajendra III was routed and the Chola empire ceased to exist thereafter. Thus the Chola empire was completely overshadowed by the Pandyan empire and sank into obscurity and ceased to exist by the end of the 13th century.
Kaveripoompattinam on the coast near the Kaveri delta was a major port town.
The other major towns were Thanjavur, Uraiyur and Kudanthai, now known as Kumbakonam+. After Rajendra Chola moved his capital to Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Thanjavur lost its importance.
In the age of the Cholas, the whole of South India was for the first time brought under a single government.
The Cholas' system of government was monarchical, as in the Sangam age. The Chola Dynasty was divided into several provinces called Mandalams which were further divided into Valanadus and these Valanadus were sub-divided into units called Kottams or Kutrams. According to Kathleen Gough+, during the Chola period the Vellalar+ were the "dominant secular aristocratic caste ... providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the kingdom's bureaucracy, and the upper layer of the peasantry".
Before the reign of Rajaraja Chola I huge parts of the Chola territory were ruled by hereditary lords and local princes who were in a loose alliance with the Chola rulers. Thereafter, until the reign of Vikrama Chola in 1133 CE when the Chola power was at its peak, these hereditary lords and local princes virtually vanished from the Chola records and were either replaced or turned into dependent officials. Through these dependent officials the administration was improved and the Chola kings were able to exercise a closer control over the different parts of the empire. There was an expansion of the administrative structure, particularly from the reign of Rajaraja Chola I onwards. The government at this time had a large land revenue department, consisting of several tiers, which was largely concerned with maintaining accounts. The assessment and collection of revenue were undertaken by corporate bodies such as the ur, nadu, sabha, nagaram and sometimes by local chieftains who passed the revenue to the centre. During the reign of Rajaraja Chola I, the state initiated a massive project of land survey and assessment and there was a reorganisation of the empire into units known as valanadus.
The order of the King was first communicated by the executive officer to the local authorities. Afterwards the records of the transaction was drawn up and attested by a number of witnesses who were either local magnates or government officers.''Administrative System in India: Vedic Age to 1947'' by U. B. Singh p.77
At local government level, every village was a self-governing unit. A number of villages constituted a larger entity known as a ''Kurram'', ''Nadu'' or ''Kottam'', depending on the area. A number of ''Kurrams'' constituted a ''valanadu''. These structures underwent constant change and refinement throughout the Chola period.
Justice was mostly a local matter in the Chola Empire; minor disputes were settled at the village level. Punishment for minor crimes were in the form of fines or a direction for the offender to donate to some charitable endowment. Even crimes such as manslaughter or murder were punished with fines. Crimes of the state, such as treason, were heard and decided by the king himself; the typical punishment in these cases was either execution or confiscation of property.
The Chola dynasty had a professional military, of which the king was the supreme commander. It had four elements, comprising the cavalry, the elephant corps, several divisions of infantry and a navy. There were regiments of bowmen and swordsmen while the swordsmen were the most permanent and dependable troops. The Chola army was spread all over the country and was stationed in local garrisons or military camps known as ''Kodagams''. The elephants played a major role in the army and the dynasty had numerous war elephant+s. These carried houses or huge Howdahs on their backs, full of soldiers who shot arrows at long range and who fought with spears at close quarters.
The Chola rulers built several palaces and fortifications to protect their cities. The fortifications were mostly made up of bricks but other materials like stone, wood and mud were also used.
The soldiers of the Chola dynasty used weapons such as swords, bows, javelins, spears and shields which were made up of steel. Particularly the famous Wootz steel+, which has a long history in south India dating back to the period before the Christian era, seems also be used to produce weapons. The army consisted of people from different castes but the warriors of the Kaikolar+ and Vellalar+ castes played a prominent role.
The Chola navy+ was the zenith of ancient India sea power. The navy grew both in size and status during the medieval Cholas reign. The Chola admirals commanded much respect and prestige. The navy commanders also acted as diplomats in some instances. From 900 to 1100, the navy had grown from a small backwater entity to that of a potent power projection and diplomatic symbol in all of Asia, but was gradually reduced in significance when the Cholas fought land battles subjugating the Chalukyas of the Andhra-Kannada area in South India.
A martial art called ''Silambam+'' was patronised by the Chola rulers. Ancient and medieval Tamil texts mention different forms of martial traditions but the ultimate expression of the loyalty of the warrior to his commander was a form of martial suicide called ''Navakandam''. The medieval ''Kalingathu Parani'' text, which celebrates the victory of Kulothunga Chola I and his general in the battle for Kalinga, describes the practice in detail.
Land revenue and trade tax were the main source of income.
The Chola rulers issued their coins in gold, silver and copper.
One of the main articles which were exported to foreign countries were cotton cloth. Uraiyur, the capital of the early Chola rulers, was a famous centre for cotton textiles which were praised by Tamil poets. The Chola rulers actively encouraged the weaving industry and derived revenue from it. During this period the weavers started to organise themselves into guilds. The weavers had their own residential sector in all towns. The most important weaving communities in early medieval times were the Saliya+r and Kaikolar+. During the Chola period silk weaving attained a high degree and Kanchipuram+ became one of the main centers for silk.
Metal crafts reached its zenith during the 10th to 11th centuries because the Chola rulers like Chembian Maadevi extended their patronage to metal craftsmen. Wootz steel was a major export item.
The farmers occupied one of the highest positions in society.''History of People and Their Environs: Essays in Honour of Prof. B.S. Chandrababu'' by S.Ganeshram p.319 These were the Vellalar community who formed the nobility or the landed aristocracy of the country and who were economically a powerful group. Agriculture was the principal occupation for many people. Besides the landowners, there were others dependent on agriculture. The Vellalar community was the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola rulers, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the bureaucracy and the upper layer of the peasantry.
In almost all villages the distinction between persons paying the land-tax (iraikudigal) and those who did not was clearly established. There was a class of hired day-labourers who assisted in agricultural operations on the estates of other people and received a daily wage. All cultivable land was held in one of the three broad classes of tenure which can be distinguished as peasant proprietorship called vellan-vagai, service tenure and eleemosynary tenure resulting from charitable gifts. The vellan-vagai was the ordinary ryotwari+ village of modern times, having direct relations with the government and paying a land-tax liable to revision from time to time. The vellan-vagai villages fell into two broad classes- one directly remitting a variable annual revenue to the state and the other paying dues of a more or less fixed character to the public
institutions like temples to which they were assigned. The prosperity of an agricultural country depends to a large extent on the facilities provided for irrigation. Apart from sinking wells and excavating tanks, the Chola rulers threw mighty stone dams across the Kaveri and other rivers, and cut out channels to distribute water over large tracts of land. Rajendra Chola I dug near his capital an artificial lake, which was filled with water from the Kolerun and the Vellar rivers.
There existed a brisk internal trade in several articles carried on by the organised mercantile corporations in various parts of the country. The metal industries and the jewellers art had reached a high degree of excellence. The manufacture of sea-salt was carried on under government supervision and control. Trade was carried on by merchants organised in guilds. The guilds described sometimes by the terms nanadesis were a powerful autonomous corporation of merchants which visited different countries in the course of their trade. They had their own mercenary army for the protection of their merchandise. There were also local organisations of merchants called "''nagaram''" in big centers of trade like Kanchipuram and Mamallapuram.
Hospitals were maintained by the Chola kings, whose government gave lands for that purpose. The Tirumukkudal inscription shows that a hospital was named after Vira Chola. Many diseases were cured by the doctors of the hospital, which was under the control of a chief physician who was paid annually 80 Kalams of paddy, 8 Kasus and a grant of land. Apart from the doctors, other remunerated staff included a nurse, barber (who performed minor operations) and a waterman.''Economic History of India'' by N. Jayapalan p.49
The Chola queen Kundavai also established a hospital at Tanjavur and gave land for the perpetual maintenance of it.
During the Chola period several guilds, communities and castes emerged. The guild was one of the most significant institutions of south India and merchants organised themselves into guilds. The best known of these were the Manigramam and Ayyavole guilds though other guilds such as Anjuvannam and Valanjiyar were also in existence. The farmers occupied one of the highest positions in society. These were the Vellalar community who formed the nobility or the landed aristocracy of the country and who were economically a powerful group. The Vellalar community was the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola rulers, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the bureaucracy and the upper layer of the peasantry. The Vellalar were also sent to northern Sri Lanka by the Chola rulers as settlers. The Ulavar community were working in the field which was associated with agriculture and the peasants were known as Kalamar.
The Kaikolar+ community were weavers and merchants but they also maintained armies. During the Chola period they had predominant trading and military roles.''The Political Economy of Craft Production: Crafting Empire in South India'', by Carla M. Sinopoli p.188 During the reign of the Imperial Chola rulers (10th-13th century) there were major changes in the temple administration and land ownership. There was more involvement of non-Brahmin elements in the temple administration. This can be attributed to the shift in money power. Skilled classes like the weavers and the merchant-class had become prosperous. Land ownership was no longer a privilege of the Brahmins (priest caste) and the Vellalar land owners.
There is little information on the size and the density of the population during the Chola reign However, there were reports of widespread famine caused by natural calamities.
The quality of the inscriptions of the regime indicates a high level of literacy and education. The text in these inscriptions was written by court poets and engraved by talented artisans. Education in the contemporary sense was not considered important; there is circumstantial evidence to suggest that some village councils organised schools to teach the basics of reading and writing to children, although there is no evidence of systematic educational system for the masses. Vocational education was through hereditary training in which the father passed on his skills to his sons. Tamil was the medium of education for the masses; Religious monasteries (''matha'' or ''gatika'') were centres of learning and received government support.
The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia. Towards the end of the 9th century, southern India had developed extensive maritime and commercial activity. The south Indian guilds played a major role in interregional and overseas trade. The best known of these were the Manigramam and Ayyavole guilds who followed the conquering Chola armies. The encouragement by the Chola court furthered the expansion of Tamil merchant associations such as the Ayyavole and Manigramam guilds into Southeast Asia and China. The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures. The Tang dynasty+ of China, the Srivijaya empire under the Sailendras, and the Abbasid+ Kalifat at Baghdad+ were the main trading partners.
Some credit for the emergence of a world market must also go to the dynasty. It played a significant role in linking the markets of China to the rest of the world. The market structure and economic policies of the Chola dynasty were more conducive to a large-scale, cross-regional market trade than those enacted by the Chinese Song Dynasty+. A Chola record gives their rationale for engagement in foreign trade: "Make the merchants of distant foreign countries who import elephants and good horses attach to yourself by providing them with villages and decent dwellings in the city, by affording them daily audience, presents and allowing them profits. Then those articles will never go to your enemies."''Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations'' by Tansen Sen p.156
Song dynasty reports record that an embassy from ''Chulian'' (Chola) reached the Chinese court in 1077, and that the king of the Chulian at the time, Kulothunga I, was called ''Ti-hua-kia-lo''. This embassy was a trading venture and was highly profitable to the visitors, who returned with copper coins in exchange for articles of tribute+, including glass and spices. Probably, the motive behind Rajendra's expedition to Srivijaya was the protection of the merchants' interests.
There was tremendous agrarian expansion during the rule of the imperial Chola Dynasty (c. 900-1270 AD) all over Tamil Nadu and particularly in the Kaveri Basin. Most of the canals of the Kaveri River belongs to this period e.g., Uyyakondan canal, Rajendran vaykkal, Sembian Mahadegvi vaykkal. There was a well-developed and highly efficient system of water management from the village level upwards. The increase in the royal patronage and also the number of devadana and bramadeya lands which increased the role of the temples and village assemblies in the field. Committees like eri-variyam(tank-committee) and totta-variam(garden committees) were active as also the temples with their vast resources in land, men and money. The water tanks that came up during the Chola period are too many to be listed here. But a few most outstanding may be briefly mentioned. Rajendra Chola built a huge tank named Solagangam in his capital city Gangaikonda Solapuram and was described as the liquid pillar of victory. About 16 miles long, it was provided with sluices and canals for irrigating the lands in the neighboring areas. Another very large lake of this period, which even today seems an important source of irrigation was the Viranameri near Kattumannarkoil in South Arcot district founded by Parantaka Chola. Other famous lakes of this period are Madurantakam, Sundra-cholapereri, Kundavai-Pereri (after a Chola queen).
Under the Cholas, the Tamil country reached new heights of excellence in art+, religion+, music+ and literature+. In all of these spheres, the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples+ and sculpture+ in stone and bronze+ reached a finesse never before achieved in India.
The Chola conquest of Kadaram (Kedah) and Srivijaya, and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire+, enabled them to influence the local cultures. Examples of the Hindu cultural influence+ found today throughout the Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Cholas. For example, the great temple complex at Prambanan+ in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture.
According to the Malay chronicle ''Sejarah Melayu'', the rulers of the Malacca sultanate+ claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. Chola rule is remembered in Malaysia today as many princes there have names ending with Cholan or Chulan, one such being Raja Chulan+, the Raja of Perak+.
The Cholas continued the temple-building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and contributed significantly to the Dravidian temple design. date=April 2015 says that "the Chola artists conceived like giants and finished like jewelers". A new development in Chola art that characterised the Dravidian architecture in later times was the addition of a huge gateway called gopuram to the enclosure of the temple, which had gradually taken its form and attained maturity under the Pandya Dynasty. The Chola school of art also spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia.sfnp|Jermsawatdi|1979|p=57|ps=
The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Shiva in various forms, such as Vishnu+ and his consort Lakshmi+, and the Shaivite saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja+ the Divine Dancer.
The Imperial Chola era was the golden age of Tamil culture, marked by the importance of literature. Chola records Commentaries were written on the great text ''Tolkāppiyam'' which deals with grammar but which also mentions ethics of warfare. ''Periapuranam'' was another remarkable literary piece of this period. This work is in a sense a national epic of the Tamil people because it treats of the lives of the saints who lived in all parts of Tamil Nadu and belonged to all classes of society, men and women, high and low, educated and uneducated.''Concise Encyclopaedia Of India'' by Kulwant Rai Gupta, Amita Gupta p.288
Kamban+ flourished during the reign of Kulothunga Chola III. His ''Ramavataram+'' (also referred to as ''Kambaramayanam'') is an epic of Tamil literature, and although the author states that he followed Valmiki+'s ''Ramayana+'', it is generally accepted that his work is not a simple translation or adaptation of the Sanskrit epic.''Legend of Ram'' By Sanujit Ghose He imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time; his description of Kosala+ is an idealised account of the features of the Chola country.
Jayamkondar+'s masterpiece, ''Kalingattuparani'', is an example of narrative poetry that draws a clear boundary between history and fictitious conventions. This describes the events during Kulothunga Chola I's war in Kalinga and depicts not only the pomp and circumstance of war, but the gruesome details of the field. The Tamil poet Ottakuttan+ was a contemporary of Kulothunga Chola I and served at the courts of three of Kulothunga's successors. Ottakuttan wrote ''Kulothunga Cholan Ula'', a poem extolling the virtues of the Chola king.
''Nannul'' is a Chola era work on Tamil grammar. It discusses all five branches of grammar and, according to Berthold Spuler, is still relevant today and is one of the most distinguished normative grammars of literary Tamil.
Of the devotional literature, the arrangement of the Shaivite canon into eleven books was the work of Nambi Andar Nambi, who lived close to the end of the 10th century. However, relatively few Vaishnavite works were composed during the Later Chola period, possibly because of the rulers' apparent animosity towards them.
Chola rulers took an active interest in the development of temple centres and used the temples to widen the sphere of their royal authority. They established educational institutions and hospitals around the temple, enhanced the beneficial aspects of the role of the temple, and projected the royalty as a very powerful and genial presence. A hospital named Virasolan was provided with fifteen beds for sick people. The items of expense set apart for their comforts are rice, a doctor, a surgeon, two maid servants for nursing the patients, and a general servant for the hospital.''South Indian Shrines'', Illustrated by P. V. Jagadisa Ayyar p.23
In general, Cholas were followers of Hinduism. They were not swayed by the rise of Buddhism and Jainism+ as were the kings of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties. Kocengannan, an Early Chola, was celebrated in both Sangam literature and in the Shaivite canon as a Hindu saint.
While the Cholas did build their largest and most important temple dedicated to Shiva+, it can be by no means concluded that either they were followers of Shaivism only or that they were not favourably disposed to other faiths. This is borne out by the fact that the second Chola king, Aditya I (871–903 CE), built temples for Shiva and also for Vishnu. Inscriptions of 890 refer to his contributions to the construction of the Ranganatha Temple at Srirangapatnam+ in the country of the Western Gangas, who were both his feudatories and had connections by marriage with him. He also pronounced that the great temples of Shiva and the Ranganatha temple were to be the ''Kuladhanam'' of the Chola emperors.
Parantaka II was a devotee of the reclining Vishnu (Vadivu Azhagiya Nambi) at Anbil, on the banks of the Kaveri river on the outskirts of Tiruchy, to whom he gave numerous gifts and embellishments. He also prayed before him before his embarking on war to regain the territories in and around Kanchi and Arcot from the waning Rashtrakutas and while leading expeditions against both Madurai and Ilam (Sri Lanka). Parantaka I and Parantaka Chola II endowed and built temples for Shiva and Vishnu. Rajaraja Chola I patronised Buddhists and provided for the construction of the Chudamani Vihara+, a Buddhist monastery in Nagapattinam+, at the request of Sri Chulamanivarman, the Srivijaya Sailendra king.
During the period of the Later Cholas, there are alleged to have been instances of intolerance towards Vaishnavites especially towards their acharya, Ramanuja+. Kulothunga Chola II+, a staunch Shaivite, is said to have removed a statue of Vishnu from the Shiva temple at Chidambaram, though there are no epigraphical evidences to support this theory. There is an inscription from 1160 that the custodians of Shiva temples who had social intercourses with Vaishnavites would forfeit their property. However, this is more of a direction to the Shaivite community by its religious heads than any kind of dictat by a Chola emperor. While Chola kings built their largest temples for Shiva and even while emperors like Rajaraja Chola I held titles like ''Sivapadasekharan'', in none of their inscriptions did the Chola emperors proclaim that their clan only and solely followed Shaivism or that Shaivism was the state religion during their rule.
The Chola dynasty has inspired many Tamil authors. The most important work of this genre is the popular ''Ponniyin Selvan+'' (The son of ''Ponni''), a historical novel in Tamil+ written by Kalki Krishnamurthy+. Written in five volumes, this narrates the story of Rajaraja Chola, dealing with the events leading up to the ascension of Uttama Chola+ to the Chola throne. Kalki had used the confusion in the succession to the Chola throne after the demise of Parantaka Chola II. The book was serialised in the Tamil periodical ''Kalki+'' during the mid-1950s. The serialisation lasted for nearly five years and every week its publication was awaited with great interest.
Kalki's earlier historical romance, ''Parthiban Kanavu+'', deals with the fortunes of the imaginary Chola prince Vikraman, who was supposed to have lived as a feudatory of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I+ during the 7th century. The period of the story lies within the interregnum during which the Cholas were in decline before Vijayalaya Chola revived their fortunes.
Sandilyan+, another popular Tamil novelist, wrote ''Kadal Pura'' in the 1960s. It was serialised in the Tamil weekly ''Kumudam+''. ''Kadal Pura'' is set during the period when Kulothunga Chola I was in exile from the Vengi kingdom after he was denied the throne. It speculates the whereabouts of Kulothunga during this period. Sandilyan's earlier work, ''Yavana Rani+'', written in the early 1960s, is based on the life of Karikala Chola. More recently, Balakumaran+ wrote the novel ''Udaiyar+'', which is based on the circumstances surrounding Rajaraja Chola's construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur.
Bharata Khanda and Janapadas:
Middle kingdoms of India:
Chola dynasty+ The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Asoka, of the Maurya Empire.