Bomb disposal+ Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. Bomb disposal is an all encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the military fields of Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD), and the public safety roles of Public Safety Bomb Disposal (PSBD) and the Bomb Squad.
Remote control vehicle+ A remote control vehicle is defined as any vehicle that is remotely controlled by a means that does not restrict its motion with an origin external to the device.

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'''Bomb disposal''' is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. ''Bomb disposal'' is an all encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the military fields of Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD), and the public safety+ roles of Public Safety Bomb Disposal (PSBD) and the Bomb Squad.

"Bomb disposal" does not encompass the remediation of soils polluted with explosive materials+.

The first professional civilian bomb squad was established by Sir Vivian Dering Majendie+. As a Major+ in the Royal Artillery+ Majendie investigated an explosion on 2 October 1874 in the Regent's Canal+ when the barge+ 'Tilbury', carrying six barrels of petroleum and five tons of gunpowder blew up, killing the crew and destroying Macclesfield Bridge and cages at nearby London Zoo+.

In 1875, he framed The Explosives Act+, the first modern legislation for explosives control. He also pioneered many bomb disposal techniques, including remote methods for the handling and dismantling of explosives. His advice during the Fenian dynamite campaign+ of 1881-85 was officially recognised as having contributed to the saving of lives. After Victoria Station+ was bombed on 26 February 1884 he defused a bomb with a clockwork+ mechanism which might have gone off at any moment.

The New York City Police Department+ established its first bomb squad in 1903. Known as the "Italian Squad", its primary mission was to deal with dynamite+ bombs used by the Mafia+ to intimidate immigrant Italian merchants and residents. It would later be known as the "Anarchist Squad" and the "Radical Squad".

Bomb Disposal became a formalized practice in the First World War+. The swift mass production of munitions led to many manufacturing defects, and a large proportion of shells fired by both sides were found to be "duds". These were hazardous to attacker and defender alike. In response, the British+ dedicated a section of Ordnance Examiners from the Royal Army Ordnance Corps+ to handle the growing problem.

In 1918, the Germans developed delayed-action fuzes+ that would later develop into more sophisticated versions during the 1930s, as Nazi Germany began its secret course of arms development. These tests led to the development of UXBs (unexploded bombs), pioneered by Herbert Ruehlemann of Rheinmetall, and first employed during the Spanish Civil War+ of 1936–37. Such delayed-action bombs provoked terror in the civilian population because of the uncertainty of time, and also complicated the task of disarming them. The Germans saw that unexploded bombs caused far more chaos and disruption than bombs that exploded immediately. This caused them to increase their usage of delayed-action bombs in World War II+.

Initially there were no specialized tools, training, or core knowledge available, and as Ammunition Technicians learned how to safely neutralize one variant of munition, the enemy would add or change parts to make neutralization efforts more hazardous. This trend of cat-and-mouse extends even to the present day, and the various techniques used to disarm munitions are not publicized.


Modern EOD Technicians across the world can trace their heritage to the Blitz+, when the United Kingdom+'s cities were subjected to extensive bombing raids by Nazi Germany+. In addition to conventional air raids+, unexploded bombs+ (UXBs) took their toll on population and morale, paralyzing vital services and communications. Bombs fitted with delayed-action fuzes+ provoked fear and uncertainty in the civilian population.

The problem of UXBs was further complicated when Royal Engineer bomb disposal personnel began to encounter munitions fitted with anti-handling device+s e.g. the Luftwaffe's+ ZUS40 anti-removal bomb fuze+ of 1940. Bomb fuzes incorporating anti-handling devices were specifically designed to kill bomb disposal personnel. Scientists and technical staff responded by devising methods and equipment to render them safe.

The United States War Department+ felt the British Bomb Disposal experience could be a valuable asset, based on reports from U.S. Army+, Navy+, and Marine Corps+ observers at RAF Melksham in Wiltshire, England+ in 1940. The next year, the Office of Civilian Defense+ (OCD) and War Department both sponsored a bomb disposal program. After the attack on Pearl Harbor+, the British sent instructors to Aberdeen Proving Ground+, where the U.S. Army would inaugurate a formal bomb disposal school under the Ordnance Corps+. In May 1941, British colleagues helped establish the Naval Mine Disposal School at the Naval Gun Factory+, Washington, D.C.+ Not to be outdone, the U.S. Navy, under the command of Lt. Draper L. Kauffman+ (who would go on to found the Underwater Demolition Team+sspaced ndash: better known as UDTs or the U.S. Navy Frogmen), created the Naval Bomb Disposal School at University Campus, Washington, D.C.+.

The first Army Bomb Disposal companies were deployed in North Africa+ and Sicily+, but proved cumbersome and were replaced with mobile seven-man squads in 1943. Wartime errors were rectified in 1947 when Army personnel started attending a new school at Indian Head, Maryland+, under U.S. Navy direction. That same year, the forerunner of the EOD Technology Center, the USN Bureau of Naval Weapons, charged with research, development, test, and evaluation of EOD tools, tactics and procedures was born.

The Ammunition Technicians+ of the Royal Logistic Corps+ (formerly RAOC+) became highly experienced in bomb disposal, after many years of dealing with bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army+ (PIRA) and other groups. The bombs employed by the PIRA ranged from simple pipe bombs to sophisticated victim-triggered devices and infra red switches. The roadside bomb was in use by PIRA from the early 1970s onwards, evolving over time with different types of explosives and triggers. Improvised mortars were also developed by the IRA, usually placed in static vehicles, with self-destruct mechanisms. During the 38-year campaign in Northern Ireland, 23 British ATO bomb disposal specialists were killed in action.

A specialist Army unit 321 EOD+ Unit [later Company] (now part of 11 EOD Regiment RLC+) was deployed to tackle increased IRA violence and willingness to use bombs against both economic and military targets. The unit's radio call-sign was Felix, many believe this to be an allusion to the cat with nine lives and led to the phrase "Fetch Felix" whenever a suspect device was encountered and became the title of the 1981 book ''Fetch Felix''; it is however due one of two reasons. All units in Northern Ireland, had a 'callsign' to be used over the radios. 321 Company being a newly formed unit hadn't such a callsign, and so a young signaller was sent to the OC of 321 Coy, the OC having lost 2 technicians that morning decided on Phoenix, to rise again from the ashes. This was misheard as Felix by the signaller and never changed. The other version is that the callsign for RAOC was 'Rickshaw', however it was felt that 321 EOD needed its own callsign, hence 'Felix the Cat with nine lives' was chosen deliberately. 321 Coy RAOC (now 321 EOD Sqn RLC) is unique in that it is the most decorated unit (in peace time) in the British Army with over 200 gallantry awards, notably for acts of great bravery during Operation Banner+ (1969–2007) in Northern Ireland.

British Ammunition Technicians of 11 EOD Regiment RLC were requested by the US Forces commanders to operate in support of the US Marine Corps in clearing the Iraqi oilfields of booby traps and were amongst the very first British service personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 prior to the actual ground invasion itself.


The eruption of low intensity conflict+s and terrorism+ waves at the beginning of the 21st century caused further development in the techniques and methods of Bomb Disposal. EOD Operators and Technicians had to adapt to rapidly evolving methods of constructing improvised explosive devices ranging from shrapnel+-filled explosive belts+ to 100 kg bombs. Since improvised explosives are generally unreliable and very unstable they pose great risk to the public and especially to the EOD Operator trying to render them safe. Therefore, new methods like greater reliance on remote techniques such as advanced remotely operated vehicles similar to the British Wheelbarrow+ or armored bulldozer+s evolved. Many nations have developed their own versions such as the D7 MCAP+ and the armored D9R+.

The British Armed Forces have become experts in bomb disposal after many years of dealing with bombs planted by the IRA. These came in many different forms, particularly car bombs rigged to detonate via a variety of manners including command wire and remote trigger. Some of the first personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 were British bomb disposal experts of 11 EOD Regiment+ RLC+. Besides large mine-clearing vehicles such as Trojan (vehicle)+, the British Army also uses small remote controlled vehicles such as Dragon Runner+ and Chevette.Clarify|date=December 2010|reason=This is not a proper reference citation. Use chemical+, biological+, incendiary, radiological ("[[dirty bomb">chemical weapons">chemical+, biological+, incendiary, radiological ("[[dirty bombchemical+, biological+, incendiary, radiological ("[[dirty bomb" style="color: #CCCCCC;">+s"), and nuclear weapons+. They provide support to VIP+s, help civilian authorities with bomb problems, teach personnel from all three services about bomb safety, and a variety of other tasks.

The Royal Engineers+ of 33 Engineer Regiment (EOD) provide EOD expertise for air dropped munitions in peace time and conventional munitions on operations, as well as battle area clearance and High Risk Search in support of improvised explosive device disposal.

Royal Engineers providing search advice and assets and Ammunition Technician+s and Ammunition Technical Officer+s of 11 EOD Regiment RLC+ Royal Logistic Corps providing Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD), Conventional Munitions Disposal (CMD) and Biological, Chemical Munitions Disposal (BCMD). They also provide expertise in Advanced IEDD and in the investigation of accidents and incidents involving ammunition and explosives, where they are seen as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs).

Weapons Intelligence is supplied by Royal Military Police+, Intelligence Corps+ and Ammunition Technical Personnel who tap into the CEXC units of the USA.

All prospective Ammunition Technicians attend a gruelling course of instruction at The Army School of Ammunition+ and the Felix Centre+, UK+. The time frame for an RLC Ammunition Technician to complete all necessary courses prior to finally being placed on an EOD team is around 36 months. Whereas the Engineer EOD training period although shorter in total is spread over a number of years and interspersed with operational experience, RE personnel may be posted to core trades such as carpentry or bridge building within their time as engineers. RAF armourers who provide the personnel for RAF EOD And IEDD units (5131 Sqn RAF+), Royal Navy EOD and Clearance Divers and RLC Ammunition Technicians are fully committed and spend their entire service working with Ammunition, Explosives ad associated sciences.


US EOD covers both on and off base calls in the US unless there is a local PSBT or "Public Safety Bomb Technician" that can handle the bomb - ordnance should only be handled by the EOD experts. Also called a "Hazardous Devices Technician", PSBTs are usually members of a Police+ department, although there are teams formed by fire department+s or emergency management agencies.

To be certified, PSBTs must attend the joint U.S. Army-FBI Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Arsenal+, Alabama+ which is modeled on the International IEDD Training school at The Army School of Ammunition+, known as the Felix Centre+. This school helps them to become knowledgeable in the detection, diagnosis and disposal of hazardous devices. They are further trained to collect evidence in hazardous devices, and present expert witness testimony in court+ on bombing cases.


Before bombing ranges can be re utilized for other purposes, these ranges must be cleared of all unexploded ordnance. This is usually performed by civilian specialists trained in the field, often with prior military service in explosive ordnance disposal. These technicians use specialized tools for subsurface examination of the sites. When munitions are found, they safely neutralize them and remove them from the site.

In addition to neutralizing munitions or bombs, conducting training and presenting evidence, EOD Technicians and Engineers also respond to other problems. They dispose of old or unstable explosives, such as ones used in quarry+ing or mining+, as well as old or unstable firework+s and ammunition+. They escort VIPs and dignitaries. They assist specialist police units, raid and entry teams with boobytrap detection and avoidance. Another function of an EOD Operator is the conducting of post-blast investigations. The EOD Operators' training and experience with bombs make them an integral part of any bombing investigation. Another part of an EOD operators job involves supporting the government intelligence units. This involves searching all places that the high ranking government officers or other protected dignitaries travel, stay or visit.


Generally, EOD ''render safe procedure+s'' (RSP) are a type of tradecraft+ protected from public dissemination in order to limit access and knowledge, depriving the enemy of specific technical procedures used to render safe ordnance or an improvised device. Another reason for keeping tradecraft secret is to hinder the development of new anti-handling device+s by their opponents: if the enemy has thorough knowledge of specific EOD techniques, they can develop fuze+ designs which are more resistant to existing render-safe procedures.

Many techniques exist for the making safe of a bomb or munition. Selection of a technique depends on several variables. The greatest variable is the proximity of the munition or device to people or critical facilities. Explosives in remote localities are handled very differently from those in densely populated areas. Contrary to the image portrayed in modern day movies, the role of the modern Bomb Disposal Operator is to accomplish their task as remotely as possible. Actually laying hands on a bomb is only done in an extremely life-threatening situation, where the hazards to people and critical structures cannot be reduced.

Ammunition Technicians+ have many tools for remote operations, one of which is the RCV, or remotely controlled vehicle, also known as the "Wheelbarrow+". Outfitted with cameras, microphones, and sensors for chemical, biological, or nuclear agents, the Wheelbarrow can help the Technician get an excellent idea of what the munition or device is. Many of these robot+s even have hand-like manipulators in case a door needs to be opened, or a munition or bomb requires handling or moving. The first ever Wheelbarrow+ was conceived by Major RJW 'Pat' Patterson RAOC and his team at the Bomb Disposal School, CAD Kineton in 1972 and used by Ammunition Technicians+ in the battle against Provisional Irish Republican Army+ bombs.

Also of great use are items that allow Ammunition technicians+ to remotely diagnose the innards of a munition or bomb. These include devices similar to the X-ray+ used by medical personnel, and high-performance sensors that can detect and help interpret sounds, odors, or even images from within the munition or bomb. Once the technicians determine what the munition or device is, and what state it is in, they will formulate a procedure to disarm it. This may include things as simple as replacing safety features, or as difficult as using high-powered explosive-actuated devices to shear, jam, bind, or remove parts of the item's firing train. Preferably, this will be accomplished remotely, but there are still circumstances when a robot won't do, and a technician must put themself at risk by personally going near the bomb. The Technician will don a specialized protective suit+, using flame and fragmentation-resistant material similar to bulletproof vest+s. Some suits have advanced features such as internal cooling, amplified hearing, and communications back to the control area. This suit is designed to increase the odds of survival for the Technician should the munition or bomb function while they are near it.

Rarely, the specifics of a munition or bomb will allow the Technician to first remove it from the area. In these cases, a containment vessel is used. Some are shaped like small water tanks, others like large sphere+s. Using remote methods, the Technician places the item in the container and retires to an uninhabited area to complete the neutralization. Because of the instability and complexity of modern bombs, this is rarely done. After the munition or bomb has been rendered safe, the Technicians will assist in the removal of the remaining parts so the area can be returned to normal. All of this, called a Render Safe Procedure, can take a great deal of time. Because of the construction of devices, a waiting period must be taken to ensure that whatever render-safe method was used worked as intended.

Another technique is Trepanation, in which a bore is cut into the sidewall of a bomb and the explosive contents are extracted through a combination of steam and acid bath liquification of bomb contents.

Although professional EOD personnel have expert knowledge, skills and equipment, they are not immune to misfortune because of the inherent dangers: in June 2010, construction workers in Göttingen+ discovered an allied 500 kilogram bomb dating from World War II+ buried approximately 7 metres below the ground. German EOD experts were notified and attended the scene. Whilst residents living nearby were being evacuated and the EOD personnel were preparing to disarm the bomb, it detonated+, killing three of them and injuring 6 others. The dead and injured each had over 20 years of hands-on experience, and had previously rendered safe between 600 and 700 unexploded bombs. The bomb which killed and injured the EOD personnel was of a particularly dangerous type because it was fitted with a delayed-action chemical fuze+, which had become highly unstable after over 65 years under ground.




Portable X-ray systems are used to radiograph the bomb before internvention. The purpose is for example to determine if a chemical charge is present or to check the status of the detonator. High steel thickness require high energy and high power sources.


Projected water disruptors use a water projectile shaped charge to destroy bombs, severing any detonating cord. One example is the BootBanger, deployed under the rear compartment of cars suspected to be carrying bombs. Projected water distruptors can be directional, such as the BootBanger; or omni-directional, an example being the Bottler.

"Pigstick" is a British Army term for the waterjet disruptor commonly deployed on the Wheelbarrow+ remotely operated vehicle against IRA bombs in the 1970s. It fires an explosively-propelled jet of water to disrupt the circuitry+ of a bomb+ and thereby disable it with a low risk of detonation. The modern pigstick is a very reliable device and fires many times with minimal maintenance. It is now used worldwide. It is about 485 mm long and weighs 2.95 kg. It is made of metal, and can be mounted on a remotely operated vehicle+ (ROV). These factors make it a very effective, safe way to disarm bombs.

The name ''pigstick'' is an odd analogy coming from the verb meaning “to hunt the wild boar on horseback with a spear.”

It was invented for the British army+ in 1972 by Major RJW 'Pat' Patterson RAOC (who named it after his enjoyment of the sport in Jaipur, India); prior to that time bombs would be dismantled by hand, which was very dangerous. It has to be held three inches (76 mm) from the bomb to disarm it, still putting the user in danger. So explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operators started connecting them to Wheelbarrow+ robots.



The ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System)+, commonly known as ZEUS, was developed for surface land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) neutralization by the U.S. Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV). It uses a moderate-power commercial solid state laser (SSL) and beam control system, integrated onto a Humvee (HMMWV), to clear surface mines, improvised bombs, or unexploded ordnance (UXO) from supply routes and minefields.

There are a wide range of containment chambers available. The simplest are sometimes dangerous suppression vessels that merely contain some of the fragments generated by the explosion. The other end of the spectrum features top-of-the-line gas-tight chambers that can withstand multiple shots while remaining able to contain chemical, biological, or radioactive agents+. Containment chambers of all types may be fitted onto towed trailers, or specialised EOD vehicles.


There is a long history of IEDD within the UK and protection for this role has evolved over the years. Starting with the Mk1 in 1969, in response to the Maoist Terrorist threat in Hong Kong, through to the Mk 2 in 1974, in response to the IRA threat in Northern Ireland (NI), with further developments of the Mk3 in 1980 to include a new helmet. The Mk4 EOD Suit introduced into service in 1993, combines fragmentation and blast protection that is prioritised over the most vulnerable parts of the body (head, face and torso). The current system, MKV/VI was introduced in 2004, and was a combine MOD/NP Aerospace project. The only part of the body that has no protection at all is the hands.


* 52nd Ordnance Group (EOD)+
* Anti-handling device+
* Advanced Bomb Suit+
* Clearance diver+
* ''Danger UXB+'', a 1979 UK television series about British sappers during the Second World War
* Demining+
* Vivian Dering Majendie+, one of the first experts on bomb disposal
* Fuse (explosives)+
* Charles Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk+, an early expert of the Ministry of Supply+ Experimental Squad charged with defuzing German bombs with unknown (new) fuzes
* Naval mine+
* Navy EOD+
* Overpressure+
* ''The Hurt Locker+'', a 2009 film about U.S. Army bomb-disposal experts in Iraq. It was directed by Katherine Bigelow, and won the Academy Award for best picture.
* ''Nine From Aberdeen+'', a 2012 book by Jeffrey M. Leatherwood+ about U.S. Army bomb disposal operations in World War II.

;Notes




;Bibliography
Refbegin:
* Major Saadat sherwani ATO, ''UXO! AN UNPERCEIVED THREAT'' (unpublished manuscript) c.2007.
* Jeffrey M. Leatherwood, ''Nine from Aberdeen: Colonel Thomas J. Kane and the Genesis of U.S. Army Bomb Disposal in World War II.'' [Master's Thesis] Western Carolina University. Department of History, c. 2004.
* Christopher Ransted, ''Bomb Disposal and the British Casualties of WW2'', c. 2004.
Refend:

Refbegin:
* book
Styles
George
1975
Bombs Have No Pity: My War Against Terrorism
W Luscombe
0-86002-133-5

* book
Gurney
Peter
1994
Braver Men Walk Away
Ulverscroft
0-7089-8762-1

* book
Smith
Gary
1997
Demo Men
Pocket
978-0-671-52053-3

* book
Webster
Donovan
1996
Aftermath: The Remnants of War
Pantheon
0-679-43195-0

* book
Birchall
Peter
1998
The Longest Walk: The World of Bomb Disposal
Sterling Pub Co Inc
1-85409-398-3

* book
Tomajczyk
Stephen
1999
Bomb Squads
Motorbooks International
0-7603-0560-9

* book
Durham
J. Frank
2003
You Only Blow Yourself Up Once: Confessions of a World War Two Bomb Disposaleer
iUniverse, Inc.
0-595-29543-6

* book
Ryder
Chris
2005
A Special Kind of Courage: Bomb Disposal and the Inside Story of 321 EOD Squadron
Methuen Publishing Ltd
0-413-77276-4

* book
Bundy
Edwin A.
2006
Commonalities in an Uncommon Profession: Bomb Disposal
http://www.wmdtraining.com/Commonalities_in_Bomb_Disposal_Technicians.pdf

* book
Esposito
Richard
2007
Bomb Squad: A Year Inside the Nation's Most Exclusive Police Unit
Hyperion
1-4013-0152-5

* book
Hunter
Chris
2007
Eight Lives Down
Bantam Press
0-593-05860-7

* book
Phillips
Stephen
2007
Proximity: A Novel of the Navy's Elite Bomb Squad
Xlibris
978-1-4257-5172-2

* book
Leatherwood
Jeffrey M.
2012
Nine from Aberdeen: U.S. Army Ordnance Bomb Disposal in World War II
Cambridge Scholars Publishing
978-1-4438-3786-6

* book
Wharton
Paul
2009
First Light: Bomb Disposal during the Ulster Campaign
Brisance Books
978-0-9563529-0-3

* book
Albright
Richard
2008, 2011
Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Ordnance
William Andrew and Elsevier
978-0-8155-1540-1

Refend:



* Bomb Squad (IED/EOD) Kosovo+
*
*
* US Air Force EOD Fact Sheet
*
*
*
* RAF Bomb Disposal
* Pigstick Disruptor by Chemring EOD, Poole, UK
* Pigstick Disruptor / Disarmer; MAnufactured by Mondial Defence Systesm, Poole, UK
*
* Army School of Ammunition IEDD Felix Centre
*