Gabriel is fifth of the five angels who keep watch: "Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim." (1 Enoch 20:7+)
When Enoch asked who the four figures were that he had seen: "And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those days." (Enoch 40:9+)
The angel Gabriel is mentioned in Daniel 8:16-26 and 9:20-27. Gabriel, "one who looked like a man," (Dan. 8:15 NIV) interprets Daniel's visions, and Daniel "was terrified and fell prostrate" (Dan. 8:17 NIV). Gabriel speaks to Daniel while he is in a deep sleep, and Daniel is tired and sick for days after being with Gabriel (Dan. 8:27 NIV). In Chapter 9, verse 20-21, Gabriel again appears to Daniel as he was praying, giving him insight and understanding in an answer to prayer (Dan. 9:20-27 NIV).
First, concerning John the Baptist+, an angel appeared to his father Zacharias+, a priest of the course of Abia, () whose barren wife Elisabeth+ was of the daughters of Aaron+, while he ministered in the temple:
Luke 1:10 And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.
11 And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
12 And when Zacharias saw ''him'', he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth.
15 For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost,16 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
18 And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.
19 And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.
20 And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.
( KJV) (other versions: )
After completing his week of ministry, Zacharias returned to his house (in Hebron+) and his wife Elizabeth conceived. After she completed "five months" () of her pregnancy, Gabriel is mentioned again:
Luke 1:26 ¶ And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,
27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name ''was'' Mary.
28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, ''thou that art'' highly favoured, the Lord ''is'' with thee: blessed ''art'' thou among women.
29 And when she saw ''him'', she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.
30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
37 For with God nothing shall be impossible.
38 And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.
( KJV) (other versions: )
Gabriel only appears by name in those two passages in Luke. In the first passage the angel identified himself as Gabriel, but in the second it is Luke who identified him as Gabriel. The only other named angels in the New Testament are Michael the Archangel (in ) and Abaddon+ (in ) . Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible. Believers are expressly warned not to worship angels (in and ).
The trope+ of Gabriel blowing a trumpet blast to indicate the Lord's return to Earth is especially familiar in Negro spirituals+. However, though the Bible mentions a trumpet blast preceding the resurrection of the dead, it never specifies Gabriel as the trumpeter. Different passages state different things: the angels of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:31); the voice of the Son of God (John 5:25-29); God's trumpet (I Thessalonians 4:16); seven angels sounding a series of blasts (Revelation 8-11); or simply "a trumpet will sound" (I Corinthians 15:52).S. Vernon McCasland, "Gabriel's Trumpet", ''Journal of Bible and Religion'' '''9''':3:159–161 (August 1941)
In related traditions, Gabriel is again not identified as the trumpeter. In Judaism, trumpets are prominent, and they seem to be blown by God himself, or sometimes Michael+. In Zoroastrianism+, there is no trumpeter at the last judgement. In Islamic tradition, it is Israfil+ who blows the trumpet, though he is not named in the Qur'an+. The Christian Church Fathers+ do not mention Gabriel as the trumpeter; early English literature similarly does not.
The earliest known identification of Gabriel as the trumpeter comes in John Wycliffe's 1382 tract, ''De Ecclesiæ Dominio''. In the year 1455, in Armenian art+, there is an illustration in an Armenian manuscript showing Gabriel sounding his trumpet as the dead climb out of their graves. Two centuries later, Gabriel is identified as the trumpeter, in John Milton+'s ''Paradise Lost+'' (1667):
Betwixt these rockie pillars Gabriel sat
Chief of the Angelic guards (IV.545f)...
He ended, and the Son gave signal high
To the bright minister that watch'd, he blew
His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps
When God descended, and perhaps once more
To sound at general doom. (XI.72ff).
Later, Gabriel's horn is omnipresent in Negro spirituals, but it is unclear how the Byzantine conception inspired Milton and the spirituals, though they presumably have a common source.
Gabriel's horn also makes an appearance in ''The Eyes of Texas'' (1903) where it signifies the rapture.
In Marc Connelly+'s play based on spirituals, ''The Green Pastures+'' (1930), Gabriel has his beloved trumpet constantly with him, and the Lord has to warn him not to blow it too soon. Four years later "Blow, Gabriel, Blow" was introduced by Ethel Merman+ in Cole Porter+'s ''Anything Goes+'' (1934).
The feast of Saint Gabriel was included for the first time in the General Roman Calendar+ in 1921, for celebration on March 24. In 1969 it was transferred to 29 September for celebration together with St. Michael+ and St. Raphael+. The Church of England+ has also adopted the 29 September date, known as Michaelmas+.
The Eastern Orthodox Church+ and those Eastern Catholic Churches+ which follow the Byzantine Rite+ celebrate his feast day+ on 8 November (for those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar+, 8 November currently falls on 21 November of the modern Gregorian Calendar+, a difference of 13 days). Eastern Orthodox commemorate him, not only on his November feast, but also on two other days: 26 March is the "Synaxis+ of the Archangel Gabriel" and celebrates his role in the Annunciation+. 13 July is also known as the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel", and celebrates all the appearances and miracles attributed to Gabriel throughout history. The feast was first established on Mount Athos+ when, in the 9th century, during the reign of Emperor+ Basil II+ and the Empress Constantina Porphyrogenitus and while Nicholas Chrysoverges+ was Patriarch of Constantinople+, the Archangel appeared in a cell near Karyes+, where he wrote with his finger on a stone tablet the hymn to the Theotokos+, "It is truly meet...+".
The Ethiopian Church+ celebrates his feast on 28 December, with a sizeable number of its believers making a pilgrimage to a church dedicated to "Saint Gabriel" in Kulubi+ on that day.
Additionally, Gabriel is the patron saint+ of messengers, those who work for broadcasting and telecommunications such as radio and television, remote sensing+, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.
In Latter-day Saint+ theology, Gabriel is believed to have lived a mortal life as the prophet Noah+. The two are regarded as the same individual; Noah being his mortal name and Gabriel being his heavenly name.
Gabriel (Arabic+: جبريل, ''Jibrīl'' or جبرائيل ''Jibrāʾīl'') is venerated as an archangel+ and as the Angel of Revelation in Islam. As the Bible portrays Gabriel as a divine messenger sent to Daniel+, Mary+, and Zechariah+, so holds Islamic tradition that Gabriel was sent to numerous pre-Islamic prophets with revelation and divine injunctions, including Adam+, whom Muslims believe was consoled by Gabriel some time after the Fall+. According to Muslim belief, God+ revealed the Quran to the Islamic prophet+ Muhammad+ through the angel Gabriel, and the fifty-third chapter of the text describes the angel without naming him, in a passage that Islamic commentators have unanimously interpreted as referring to Gabriel. The passage in question, Muslims also revere Gabriel for a number of historical events predating the first revelation. Muslims believe that Gabriel was the angel who informed Zachariah+ of John's+ birth+ as well as Mary+ of the future nativity+ of Jesus+, and that Gabriel was one of three angels who had earlier informed Abraham+ of the birth of Isaac+. All of these events can be found also in the Quran. Gabriel also makes a famous appearance in the Hadith of Gabriel+, where he questions Muhammad on the core tenets of Islam.
The Bahá'í Faith+ sees Gabriel as a messenger of God who delivered messages to Muhammad. He is mentioned in the ''Kitáb-i-Íqán+'', the primary theological work of the Baha'i religion.
Angels are described as pure spirits.
The lack of a defined form allows artists wide latitude in depicting them. Amelia R. Brown draws comparisons in Byzantine iconography between portrayals of angels and the conventions used to depict court eunuchs. Mainly from the Caucasus, they tended to have light eyes, hair, and skin; and those "castrated in childhood developed a distinctive skeletal structure, lacked full masculine musculature, body hair and beards...." As officials, they would wear a white tunic decorated with gold. Brown suggests that "Byzantine artists drew, consciously or not, on this iconography of the court eunuch". Some recent popular works on angels consider Gabriel to be female+ or androgynous+.
*Baltimore's "Little Italy" has for over 80 years hosted an annual "end of summer" St. Gabriel Festival that features a procession with a statue of the saint carried through the streets.
*1951: fantasy ''Angels in the Outfield+'' - orphan prays to St. Gabriel to help her beleaguered Pittsburgh Pirates - and he does.
*1995: horror film ''The Prophecy+'' – Gabriel, portrayed by Christopher Walken+, searches for an evil soul on Earth during an end-of-days+ angelic civil war. Gabriel is also a character in ''The Prophecy II+'' (1998) and ''The Prophecy 3: The Ascent+'' (2000).
*2004: action/horror film ''Van Helsing+'' – Hugh Jackman+ plays Gabriel Van Helsing, the archangel in the flesh.
* 2005: fantasy/horror film ''Constantine+'' – Tilda Swinton+ portrays an androgynous archangel Gabriel, the film's main antagonist on the brink of the Apocalypse+.
* 2005: fantasy/horror series Supernatural - Gabriel (portrayed by Richard Speight Jr.) is a happy go lucky trickster angel who messes with the protagonists. Seasons 2-3, 5 and 9.
*2007: action/horror film ''Gabriel+'' – Gabriel (portrayed by Andy Whitfield+) fights to save the soul+s in purgatory+ by defeating the evil fallen angel+s.
*2010: apocalyptic supernatural action film ''Legion+'' – Kevin Durand+ plays the role of Archangel Gabriel, the leader of the angel army, and the main antagonist.
*2005: Spanish role-playing game+ ''Anima: Beyond Fantasy+'' - Gabriel is as the humans know one of the seven "Beryls" (godlike beings of light) and is identified with the archangel of the same name. She has associated love, friendship, arts, and peace.
* In his epic poem+ ''Paradise Lost+'', John Milton+ made Gabriel chief of the angelic guards placed over Paradise+
* The Hebrew+ poem "Elifelet" (אליפלט) by Nathan Alterman+, put to music and often heard on the Israeli Radio+, tells of a heroic, self-sacrificing Israeli soldier being killed in battle. Upon the protagonist's death, the angel Gabriel descends to Earth, in order to comfort the spirit of the fallen hero and take him up to Heaven
* The main character of Salman Rushdie+'s ''The Satanic Verses+'' (1988) believes that he is the modern incarnation of Gabriel
*2012: Japanese light novel series ''No Game No Life+'', Jibril is a member of the Flügel race and was a member of the Council of 18 Wings, a prominent section in the government. She is depicted as loving knowledge and books.
The eccentric English hagiographer and antiquarian, Sabine Baring-Gould+ (1834–1924), wrote the English lyrics to ''Gabriel's Message'', which he translated from the Basque+ Christmas+ carol ''Birjina gaztetto bat zegoen'', which was probably related to the 13th or 14th-century Latin chant+ ''Angelus Ad Virginem'' which itself is based on the biblical account of the Annunciation+ in the Gospel of Luke+. In Creed's song, My Own Prison, Gabriel is mentioned deciphering the visions to the main character in the song.
''See also Gabriel gallery in Commons+''
Daniel 8:15 describes Gabriel as appearing in the "likeness of man" and in Daniel 9:21 he is referred to as "the man Gabriel." David Everson observes that "such anthropomorphic descriptions of an angel are consistent with previous ... descriptions of angels," as in Genesis 19:5.
Gabriel is most often portrayed in the context of scenes of the Annunciation+. In 2008 a 16th-century drawing by Lucas van Leyden of the Netherlands was discovered. George R. Goldner, chairman of the department of prints and drawings at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, suggests that the sketch was for a stained glass window. "The fact that the archangel is an ordinary-looking person and not an idealized boy is typical of the artist", said Goldner.
In chronological order (to see each item, follow the link in the footnote):
* ''Archangel Gabriel'' (Triptych+), early 10th century, Benaki Museum+
* ''The Archangel Gabriel'', Pisan+, c. 1325/50, National Gallery of Art+
* ''The Archangel Gabriel'', Masolino da Panicale+, c. 1420/30, National Gallery of Art+
* ''Justice between the Archangels Michael and Gabriel'', Jacobello del Fiore+, 1421
* ''Merode Altarpiece'' (Triptych), Robert Campin+, c. 1425, Metropolitan Museum of Art+
* ''The Angel Gabriel'', Agostino di Duccio+, c. 1450
* ''Annunciation'', Leonardo da Vinci+, c. 1475
* ''The Angel Gabriel'', Neroccio d'Landi+, c. 1490
* ''The Angel Gabriel'', late 15th or early 16th century, Flemish, National Gallery of Art+
* ''The Angel Gabriel'', Ferrari Gaudenzio+, 1511, National Gallery, London+
* ''Gabriel delivering the Annunciation'' El Greco+, 1575 (pictured above)
* ''Go Down Death'', Aaron Douglas+, 1934
*1960: ''The Twilight Zone+'' episode, "A Passage for Trumpet+" – The down-and-out musician Joey Crown (Jack Klugman+) meets an enigmatic trumpet player named "Gabe" (played by John Anderson+) in what has been described as Rod Serling+'s version of ''It's a Wonderful Life''.
*2005: TV series ''Supernatural+'' – Gabriel (Richard Speight Jr.+) is a runaway archangel posing as the demi-god Loki+ who kills people he deems evil with a sense of humor, but series protagonists Sam and Dean Winchester eventually discover his true nature. He is also known as "the Trickster".
*2014: Syfy Channel original series ''Dominion+'' – Gabriel (portrayed by Carl Beukes+) is the series antagonist, who plans to kill the Archangel Michael and annihilate humanity.
*2015: In ''The Walking Dead'' season 5+, Rick's group encounters a priest called Father Gabriel Stokes+, who performs some nefarious acts, behaves as if they haunt him, and in "Spend+" tells Alexandria's leaders Deanna and Reg Munroe+ that Rick's group is evil and untrustworthy.
* Angel of the Lord+
* Fleur de lys+
* Hierarchy of angels+
* List of names referring to El+
* Michael (archangel)+
* Gabriel's Horn+, a mathematical figure
*Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). ''''. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 978-0-8276-0797-2.
*Briggs, Constance Victoria (1997). ''''. New York, NY: Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-27921-6.
*Bunson, Matthew (1996). ''''. New York, NY: Crown Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0517885379.
*Cruz, Joan C. (1999). ''''. Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers. ISBN 0-89555-638-3.
*Davidson, Gustav (1994). ''''. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0029070529.
*Dennis, Geoffrey (2007). ''''. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 9780738709055.
*Graham, Billy (1994). ''''. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 9780849950742.
*Guiley, Rosemary (1996). ''''. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc. pp. 69–70. ISBN 0-8160-3825-2. LCCN 96012009.
*Guiley, Rosemary (2004). ''''. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 9780816050239. LCCN 2003060147.
*Kreeft, Peter J. (1995). ''''. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press. ISBN 9780898705508.
*Lewis, James R.; Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy (2008-05-01). ''''. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-1-578592-12-8.
*Melville, Francis (2001). ''''. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-7641-5403-4.
*Ronner, John (1993). ''''. Murfreesboro, TN: Mamre Press. ISBN 9780932945402.
* Archangel Correspondence. Last accessed November 15, 2013.
* Catholic Encyclopedia. Last accessed November 15, 2013.
* Celdrán, José Alfredo González, and Ruck, Carl A. P. Last accessed November 15, 2013.
* Christian Art. Last accessed November 15, 2013.
* Jewish Encyclopedia.com. Last accessed November 15, 2013.
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Book of Daniel:
Angels in Abrahamic Religions:
Gabriel+ In the Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (Hebrew: גַּבְרִיאֵל Gavri'el "God is my strength", Biblical Greek: Γαβριήλ, Gabriel; Amharic, Geez and Tigrinya: ገብርኤል, Arabic: جبريل or جبرائيل Jibril or Jibra'il) is an angel who typically serves as a messenger sent from God to certain people. Gabriel García Márquez+ Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (/ɡɑːrˈsiːə ˈmɑːrkɛs/; American Spanish: [ɡaˈβɾjel ɣarˈsi.a ˈmarkes]; 6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America. Gabriel Fauré+ Gabriel Urbain Fauré (French: [ɡabʁiɛl yʁbɛ̃ fɔʁe]; 12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher. Gabriel Zakuani+ Gabriel Abdala Zakuani (born 31 May 1986) is a Congolese professional footballer who plays for Northampton Town as a defender. Gabrielle D. Clements+ Gabrielle de Veaux Clements (September 11, 1858 – March 26, 1948) was an American painter, print maker, and muralist. Gabrielle Giffords+ Gabrielle Dee "Gabby" Giffords (born June 8, 1970) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Arizona. Gabriel Slaughter+ Gabriel Slaughter (December 12, 1767 – September 19, 1830) was the seventh Governor of Kentucky and was the first person to ascend to that office upon the death of the sitting governor. Gabrielle Union+ Gabrielle Monique Union (born October 29, 1973) is an American actress. She began her career in 1990s, appearing on television sitcoms, before landing supporting roles in teen comedy films She's All That and 10 Things I Hate About You (1999). Gabriele D'Annunzio+ General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese OMS CMG MVM (Italian pronunciation: [ɡabriˈɛːle danˈnuntsjo]; 12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. Gabriel Batistuta+ Gabriel Omar Batistuta (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡaˈβɾjel ˈomaɾ βatisˈtuta]; born 1 February 1969), nicknamed Batigol [batiˈɣol] as well as El Ángel Gabriel [el ˌaŋxel ɣaˈβɾjel] (Spanish for Angel Gabriel), is a retired Argentine professional footballer.