Haplogroup H (mtDNA) +Search for Videos

20,000-25,000 YBP
Southwest Asia+
H* lineages, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5'36, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, H11, H12, H13, H14, H15, H16, H18, H19, H20, H22, H23, H24, H25, H26, H28, H29, H31, H32, H33, H34, H35, H37, H38, H39, 16129(H17+H27), 16129(H21+H30)
G2706A, T7028C

'''Haplogroup H''' is a human mitochondrial DNA+ (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade is believed to have originated in Southwest Asia+, around 20,000-25,000 years ago.

Mitochondrial haplogroup H is today predominantly found in Europe, and is believed to have evolved before the Last Glacial Maximum+ (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East+ and Southern Caucasus+ between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia+ suggest it reached Europe before the Last Glacial Maximum. The clade has also spread to Siberia+ and inner Asia. Today, about 40% of all maternal lineages in Europe belong to haplogroup H.

Haplogroup H is a descendant of haplogroup HV+. The Cambridge Reference Sequence+ (CRS), which until recently was the human mitochondrial sequence to which all others were compared, belongs to haplogroup H2a2a1 (human mitochondrial sequences should now be compared with the ancestral Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS)). Several independent studies conclude that haplogroup H probably evolved in West Asia+ c. 25,000 years ago. It was carried to Europe by migrations c. 20-25,000 years ago, and spread with population of the southwest of the continent. Its arrival was roughly contemporary with the rise of the Gravettian+ culture. The spread of subclades H1, H3 and the sister haplogroup V+ reflect a second intra-European expansion from the Franco-Cantabrian region+ after the last glacial maximum+, c. 13,000 years ago.

In July 2008 ancient mtDNA from an individual called Paglicci 23+, whose remains were dated to 28,000 years ago and excavated from Paglicci Cave+ (Apulia+, Italy+), were found to be identical to the Cambridge Reference Sequence in HVR1+. This once was believed to indicate haplogroup H, but researchers now recognize that CRS can also appear in U or HV. Haplogroup HV derives from the Haplogroup R0 which in turn derives from haplogroup R is a descendant of macro-haplogroup N like its sibling M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3.

Haplogroup H has also been found among Iberomaurusian+ specimens dating from the Epipaleolithic+ at the Taforalt+ prehistoric site.

Haplogroup H has been observed among specimens at the mainland cemetery in Kulubnarti+, Sudan+, which date from the Early Christian period (AD 550-800).

Haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA clade in Europe+. It is found in approximately 41% of native Europeans. The lineage is also common in North Africa+ and the Middle East+.

The majority of the European populations have an overall haplogroup H frequency of 40%–50%. Frequencies decrease in the southeast of the continent. The clade reaches 20% in the Near East and Caucasus, 17% in Iran, and <10% in the Persian Gulf, Northern India and Central Asia+.

Undifferentiated haplogroup H has been found among Palestinians+ (14%), Syrians+ (13.6%), Druze+ (10.6%), Iraqis+ (9.5%), Somalis+ (6.7%), Egyptians+ (5.7% in El-Hayez; 14.7% in Gurna+), Saudis+ (5.3%-10%), Socotri+ (3.1%), Nubians+ (1.3%), and Yemen+is (0%-13.9%).

Among all these clades, the subhaplogroups H1 and H3 have been subject to a more detailed study and would be associated to the Magdalenian+ expansion from SW Europe c. 13,000 years ago:

H1 encompasses an important fraction of Western European mtDNA lineages, reaching its local peak among contemporary Basques+ (27.8%). It also occurs at high frequencies elsewhere in the Iberian Peninsula+, as well as in the Maghreb+. The haplogroup frequency is above 10% in many other parts of Europe (France, Sardinia, British Isles, Alps, large portions of Eastern Europe), and above 5% in nearly all the continent. Its subclade '''H1b''' is most common in eastern Europe and NW Siberia.

So far, the highest frequency of H1 has been found among the Tuareg+ inhabiting the Fezzan+ region in Libya+ (61%). The basal H1* haplogroup is found among the Tuareg inhabiting the Gossi+ area in Mali+ (4.76%).

; Frequencies of haplogroup H1 in the world (Ottoni et al. 2010)
! Region or Population
! H1%
! No. of subjects

| '''Africa'''| |

| Libyan Tuareg|61|129

| Tuareg (West Sahel)|23.3|90

| Berbers (Morocco)|20.2|217

| Morocco|12.2|180

| Berbers (Tunisia)|13.4|276

| Tunisia |10.6|269

| Mozabite|9.8|80

| Siwas (Egypt) |1.1|184

| Western Sahara|14.8|128

| Mauritania|6.9|102

| Senegal |0|100

| Fulani (Chad-Cameroon)|0|186

| Cameroon|0|142

| Chad |0|77

| Buduma (Niger)|0|30

| Nigeria|0|69

| Ethiopia|0|82

| Amhara (Ethiopia)|0|90

| Oromo (Ethiopia)|0|117

| Sierra Leone|0|155

| Guineans (Guiné Bissau)|0|372

| Mali|0|83

| Kikuyu (Kenya)|0|24

| Benin|0|192

| '''Asia'''| |

| Central Asia|0.7|445

| Pakistan|0|100

| Yakuts |1.7|58

| '''Caucasus''' | |

| Caucasus (north) |8.8|68

| Caucasus (south)|2.3|132

| Northwestern Caucasus|4.7|234

| Armenians|2.3|175

| Daghestan|2.5|269

| Georgians|1|193

| Karachay-Balkars|4.4|203

| Ossetians|2.4|296

| '''Europe''' | |

| Andalusia |24.3|103

| Basques (Spain) |27.8|108

| Catalonia|13.9|101

| Galicia|17.7|266

| Pasiegos (Cantabria) |23.5|51

| Portugal|25.5|499

| Spain (miscellaneous) |18.9|132

| Italy (north) |11.5|322

| Italy (center) |6.3|208

| Italy (south)|8.7|206

| Sardinia |17.9|106

| Sicily |10|90

| Finland |18|78

| Volga-Ural Finnic speakers|13.6|125

| Basques (France) |17.5|40

| Béarnaise |14.8|27

| France|12.3|106

| Estonia|16.7|114

| Saami|0|57

| Lithuania|1.7|180

| Hungary |11.3|303

| Czech Republic |10.8|102

| Ukraine|9.9|191

| Poland|9.3|86

| Russia|13.5|312

| Austria|10.6|2487

| Germany|6|100

| Romania|9.4|360

| Netherlands |8.8|34

| Greece (Aegean islands) |1.6|247

| Greece (mainland) |6.3|79

| Macedonia |7.1|252

| Albania|2.9|105

| Turks|3.3|360

| Balkans|5.4|111

| Croatia |8.3|84

| Slovaks|7.6|119

| Slovak (East)|16.8|137

| Slovak (West)|14.2|70

| '''Middle East''' | |

| Arabian Peninsula|0|94

| Arabian Peninsula (incl. Yemen, Oman) |0.8|493

| Druze |3.4|58

| Dubai (United Arab Emirates)|0.4|249

| Iraq|1.9|206

| Jordanians|1.7|173

| Lebanese|4.2|167

| Syrians|0|159


H3 is found throughout the whole of Europe and in the Maghreb+ but does not exist in the Far East, and is believed to have originated among Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in south-western Europe between 9 000 and 11 000 years ago. H3 represents the second largest fraction of the H genome after H1 and has a somewhat similar distribution, with peaks in Portugal, Spain, Scandinavia and Finland. It is common in Portugal (12%), Sardinia (11%), Galicia (10%), the Basque country (10%), Ireland (6%), Norway (6%), Hungary (6%) and southwestern France (5%).http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_H_mtDNA.shtml Access date 2015/10/02 Studies have suggested haplogroup H3 is highly protective against AIDS progression.

Example of H3 sub-groups are:
*H3a and H3g, found in north-west Europe.
*H3b and H3k, found in the British Isles and Catalonia
*H3c, found in Western Europe, including among the Basques
*H3h, found throughout northern Europe, but was also found in Cerdic of Wessex+ (519 to 534), King of West Saxons
*H3i found in Ireland and Scotland
*H3j found in Italy
*H3v found especially in Germanic countries
*H3z found in Atlantic Europe

The basal H3* haplogroup is found among the Tuareg inhabiting the Gossi area in Mali (4.76%).

H5 may have evolved in West Asia, where it is most frequent and diverse in the Western Caucasus. However, its '''H5a''' subclade has a stronger representation in Europe, though at low levels.U. Roostalu et al, Origin and expansion of haplogroup H, the dominant human mitochondrial DNA lineage in West Eurasia: the Near Eastern and Caucasian perspective, ''Molecular Biology and Evolution'', vol. 24, no. 2 (2007), pp. 436-448.

The H2, H6 and H8 haplogroups are somewhat common in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. They may be the most common H subclades among Central Asians and have also been found in West Asia. '''H2a5''' has been found in the Basque Country, Spain, and in Norway+, Ireland+ and Slovakia+. '''H6a1a1a''' is common among Ashkenazi Jews.

These H4, H7 and H13 subhaplogroups are present in both Europe and West Asia; the H13 subclade is also found in the Caucasus. They are quite rare. '''H4''' is often found in Iberia+ and along with H13 and H2 account for 42% of H lineages in Egypt.

H11 is commonly found in Central Europe.

H18 occurs on the Arabian Peninsula.

These haplogroups are both found in the Caucasus region. H20 also appears at low levels in the Iberian Peninsula (less than 1%), Arabian Peninsula (1%) and Near East (2%).

These subclades are found mostly in Europe, South-West Asia and Central Asia.

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup H subclades is based on Build 16(February 2014) of the Phylotree, an internationally accepted standard. The full tree can be viewed at Phylotree.

! mtDNA HG "H" p-tree

*** (T195C!)

Haplogroup H was found as a possible increased risk factor for ischemic cardiomyopathy development.

In his popular book ''The Seven Daughters of Eve+'', Bryan Sykes+ named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup ''Helena''. Stephen Oppenheimer+ uses the very similar name ''Helina'' in his book The Origins of the British.

*Genealogical DNA test+
*Genetic genealogy+
*Human mitochondrial genetics+
*Population genetics+



**Ian Logan's
**Mannis van Oven's
*Haplogroup H
** at Family Tree DNA+
**National Geographic's , from ''National Geographic+''
**mtDNA article at SNPedia+
**Haplogroup and Subcluster Frequencies for European Populations:
*Haplogroup H1
** The H1 mtDNA Haplogroup Project

Haplogroup H (mtDNA)+ Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade is believed to have originated in Southwest Asia, around 20,000-25,000 years ago.
Haplogroup U (mtDNA)+ Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA). Its subclades are widely distributed across Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the Near East.
 Haplogroup S (mtDNA)+ In human genetics, Haplogroup S is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is a descendant of macrohaplogroup N.
Haplogroup T (mtDNA)+ Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is believed to have originated around 25,000 years ago in the Near East.
Haplogroup I (mtDNA)+ Haplogroup I is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is largely distributed in Europe and West Asia, and is also found among some Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Africa.
Haplogroup M (mtDNA)+ In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a descendant of haplogroup L3.
Haplogroup N (mtDNA)+ Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. An enormous clade spanning many continents, macro-haplogroup N, like its sibling haplogroup M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3.
 Haplogroup H5 (mtDNA)+ In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H5 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup descended from Haplogroup H (mtDNA).
 Haplogroup V (mtDNA)+ Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade is believed to have originated around 9,800 years ago in the Near East.
Haplogroup J (mtDNA)+ Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to Haplogroup T.