Semitic neopaganism is both ethnic+ and non-ethnic in nature: there are groups recovering their ancient polytheistic cults among the Jews+, the Lebanese+, and non-Semite Americans+ adopting Semitic Pagan worship. The Semitic Neopagan religions are divided into Levant+ine and Arabian+ movements. Forms of Witchcraft+ religions inspired by the Semitic milieu, such as ''Jewitchery'', may also be enclosed within the Semitic Neopagan movement. These Witchcraft groups are particularly influenced by Jewish feminism+, focusing on the goddess cults of the Israelites.
The reconstruction of polytheistic practices of the Levant+ or Canaan+, including Phoenicia+ and the Israel and Judah+, the Canaanite religion+s, has antecedents in the Palestinian Jewish cultural movement of Canaanism+ of the 1930s, which called upon Jews in Israel to distance themselves from Judaism and instead embrace a renewal of ancient Hebrew and Canaanite mythos.
The most notable contemporary Levantine Neopagan group is known as Am Ha Aretz+ (, lit. "People of the Land", a rabbinical term for uneducated and religiously unobservant Jews), "AmHA" for short, based in Israel+. This group grew out of Ohavei Falcha, "Lovers of the Soil", a movement founded in the late 19th century.
Elie Sheva, according to her own testimony an "elected leader of AmHA" reportedly founded an American+ branch of the group, known as "Primitive Hebrew Assembly".
''Beit Asherah'' ("House of the Goddess Asherah"), was one of the first Jewish Neopagan groups, founded in the early 1990s by Stephanie Fox, Steven Posch, and Magenta Griffiths. Magenta Griffiths is High Priestess of the Beit Asherah coven, and a former board member of the Covenant of the Goddess+.
*Engelberg, Keren (October 30, 2003). reprinted in ''The Jewish Journal'' (July 21, 2008)
*Hunter, Jennifer (July 1, 2006). ''Magickal Judaism: Connecting Pagan and Jewish Practice''. Citadel. ISBN 0-8065-2576-2, ISBN 978-0-8065-2576-1.
*Jacobs, Jill Suzanne. in ''The Forward'', Oct 31, 2003
*Michaelson, Jay (Decembdr 0, 2005). in ''The Jewish Daily Forward''.
*Raphael, Melissa (April 1998). "Goddess Religion, Postmodern Jewish Feminism, and the Complexity of Alternative Religious Identities". ''Nova Religio'', Vol. 1, No. 2, Pages 198–215 (abstract can be found at: )
*Various authors. "Jewish Paganism" in ''Green Egg+'', Winter 1994 (Volume 27, #107).
*Winkler, Rabbi Gershon (January 10, 2003). ''Magic of the Ordinary: Recovering the Shamanic in Judaism''. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-444-8, ISBN 978-1-55643-444-0.
Semitic neopaganism+ Semitic Neopaganism refers to a group of religions based on or attempting to reconstruct the old religious traditions of the Semitic peoples, including the pre-Semitic Sumerian elements of Ancient Mesopotamian religion.