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the Jain mathematician|Mahāvīra (mathematician)

Jain deity
Vardhamana Mahavira
Last ''Jain Tirthankara''

Ahimsā+, Anekantavada+, Syadavada, Aparigraha+
Asadh Sud 6
Chaitra+ Sud 13, 599 BCE
Kartik+ Vad 10
Vaisakh+ Sud 10
Asho+ Vad Amaas (Kartik+ Amavasya / Dipawali+), 527 BCE
Pawapuri+, Bihar+
7 cubits (10.5 feet)
72 years
Siddhayini or Siddhayika

'''Mahavira''' (599 BCE–527 BCE), last=Sanghvi|first=Vir|authorlink=Vir Sanghvi|title=Rude Travel: Down The Sages|url=|publisher=Hindustan Times+|date=14 September 2013

Mahavira was born into a royal family in what is now Bihar+, India+. At the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening (Diksha+). For the next twelve and a half years he practised intense meditation and severe penance, after which he achieved Kevala Jnana+ or enlightenment. He travelled all over Bharat+ (which was larger than today's India+) for the next thirty years to teach Jain philosophy+. Mahavira attained moksha+ at the age of 72. Mahavira was given the title ''Jīnā'', or "Conqueror" (conqueror of inner enemies such as attachment, pride and greed), which subsequently became synonymous with Tirthankara. Although, there is reasonable evidence to believe that Parshvanatha+, predecessor of Mahavira was a historical figure, still Mahavira is sometimes referred as the founder of Jainism. On this famous Indologist, Heinrich Zimmer+ note:

His childhood name was 'Vardhamana', which means "One who grows", because of the increased prosperity in the kingdom at the time of his birth. The name "Mahavira" is a Sanskrit word meaning ''The Great Hero''. Mahavira has many other titles and epithets, including Vira, Sanmati and Nātaputta. Buddhist+ texts refer to Mahavira as ''Nigaṇṭ ha Ñātaputta'' (son of ''Natas''). This referred to his clan of origin, the ''Ñata''.

Mahavira was born into the royal family of King Siddhartha of Kundagrama+ and Queen Trishala+, sister of King Chetaka of Vaishali. publisher=The Times of India+In the Gregorian calendar+, this date falls in March or April and is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti+.

Historians have identified three places in Bihar as his possible birthplace: Kundigram in Vaishali district+, Lachhuar in Jamui+ and Kundalapura in Nalanda+. Most modern historians agree that Basokund was his birthplace. Traditionally, Kundalapura in the ancient city of Vaishali+ is regarded as his birthplace; however, its location remains unidentified. As the son of a king, Mahavira had all luxuries of life at his disposal. Both his parents were strict followers of Parshvanatha+.

Jain traditions are not unanimous about his marital state. According to one tradition, Digambara+, he was celibate and according to another (Svetambara) he was married young to Yashoda and had one daughter, Priyadarshana.

At the age of 30, Mahavira abandoned all the comforts of royal life and left his home and family to live an ascetic life in the pursuit of spiritual awakening. He underwent severe penances, even without clothes. There is graphic description of hardships and humiliation he faced in the ''Acharanga Sutra+''. In the eastern part of Bengal+ he suffered great distress. Boys pelted him with stones, people often humiliated him.

The Kalpa Sūtra gives a detailed account of his ascetic life:

After twelve and a half years of rigorous penance he achieved Kevala Jnana+ i.e., realization of perfect perception, knowledge, power, and bliss. The ''Acharanga sutra'' describes Mahavira as all-seeing. The ''Sutrakritanga+'' elaborates the concept as all-knowing and provides details of other qualities of Mahavira.

For a period of 30 years after omniscience, Mahavira traveled far and wide in India to teach his philosophy. The Jain poets depicts that King Shrenik of Magadha attended the samavasarana of Mahavira. His philosophy has eight cardinal (law of trust) principles, three metaphysical (''dravya+'', ''jiva+'' and ''ajiva+''), and five ethical. The objective is to elevate the quality of life.

* Five ethical principles that were preached by Mahavira:
# Ahimsa+ (Non Violence+)- Mahavira taught that every living being has sanctity and dignity of its own and it should be respected just like we expect our own sanctity and dignity to be respected. In simple words, we should show maximum possible kindness to every living being.
# Satya+ or truthfulness which leads to harmony in society. One should speak truth and respect right of property of each other's in society. One should be true to his own thoughts, words and deeds to create mutual atmosphere of confidence in society.
# Asteya+ or non-stealing which states that one should not take anything if not properly given.
# Brahmacharya+ or chastity which stresses steady but determined restraint over yearning for sensual or sexual pleasures.
# Aparigraha+ or non-possession, non-attachment which requires complete detachment from people, places and material property.

Mahavira taught that pursuit of pleasure is an endless game, so we should train our minds to curb individual cravings and passions. That way one does achieve equanimity of mind, mental poise and spiritual balance. One should voluntarily limit acquisition of property as a community virtue which results in social justice and fair distribution of utility commodities. The strong and the rich should not try to suppress the weak and the poor by acquiring limitless property which results in unfair distribution of wealth in society and hence poverty. Attempting to enforce these five qualities by an external and legal authority leads to hypocrisy or secret criminal tendencies. So the individual or society should exercise self-restraint to achieve social peace, security and an enlightened society.

Another fundamental teaching of Mahavira was Anekantavada+ i.e., pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints. Mahāvīra employed anekānta extensively to explain the Jain philosophical concepts. Taking a relativistic viewpoint, Mahāvīra is said to have explained the nature of the soul as both permanent from the point of view of underlying substance (''nīshyānay''), and temporary, from the point of view of its modes and modification.

According to Jain agams, Mahavira attained moksha+ or complete liberation in 527 BCE and his soul is believed to have become Siddha i.e., soul at its purest form. On the same day Gautama+, his Ganadhara+ (chief disciple) attained Kevala Jnana. According to Mahapurana+, after the nirvana of tirthankaras, devas+ do the funeral rites. According to Pravachansar, only nails and hair of tirthankaras are left behind, and rest of the body gets dissolved in the air like camphor. Some Western scholars suggests that this date would have been around 425 BCE. Mahavira is usually depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture with a symbol of a lion under him.

Mahavira’s previous births are discussed in Jain texts such as the ''Trishashtishalakapurusha Charitra+'' and Jinasena+'s ''Mahapurana+''. While a soul undergoes countless reincarnations in transmigratory cycle of saṃsāra+, the births of a Tirthankara+ are reckoned from the time he determined the causes of karma+ and developed the Ratnatraya+. Jain texts discuss twenty-six births of Mahavira prior to his incarnation as a Tirthankara+.
There are various Jain texts describing the life of Mahavira. The most notable of them is the ''Kalpa Sūtra+'' of Bhadrabahu+. The first Sanskrit biography of Mahavira was ''Vardhamacharitra'' by Asaga+ in 853 CE. Pakudha Kachchhayana, and Sanjaya Belatthiputta+. However, none of them have any special place in ''jaina'' universal history except Mahavira.sfn|Nagārāja|2003|p=127

Mahavira's teachings influenced many personalities. Mahatma Gandhi+ was greatly influenced by Mahavira and said, "Bhagwan Mahavira is sure to be respected as the highest authority on Ahimsa+. If anyone has practiced to the fullest extent and has propagated most the doctrine of Ahimsa, it was Lord Mahavira."

A major even is associated with the 2500th anniversary of Nirvana of Mahavira in the year 1974. In this context, Padmanabh Jaini+ writes

* Mahaveerashtak Stotra composed by Jain Poet Bhagchand

* Arihant (Jainism)+
* God in Jainism+
* History of Jainism+
* Timeline of Jainism+
* Siddhashila+

* ''Note: ISBN refers to the UK:Routledge (2001) reprint. URL is the scan version of the original 1884 reprint''


Jainism Topics:

Mahavira+ Mahavira (599 BCE–527 BCE), also known as Vardhamana, was the twenty-fourth and last tirthankara of Jainism of present Avasarpani era (half time cycle as per Jain cosmology).
Mahavira Hall+ A Mahāvīra Hall or Hall of Mahāvīra (Chinese: 大雄寶殿; pinyin: Dàxióngbǎodiàn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tōa--hiông-pó-tiān; literally: "Hall of the Great Hero") is the main building of a traditional temple complex in East Asian Buddhism, where Gautama Buddha and other buddhas and bodhisattvas are enshrined.
 Mahaviracharita+ Not to be confused with Hemachandra's Jain work about Mahavira
 Mahāvīra (mathematician)+ Mahāvīra (or Mahaviracharya, "Mahavira the Teacher") was a 9th-century Jain mathematician from Mysore, India.
 Vira Nirvana Samvat+ The Vira Nirvana Samvat (era) originated on 15 October 527 BCE. It commemorates the nirvana of Mahavira, the 24th Jain Tirthankara.
 Barsine (moth)+ Barsine is a genus of moth in the family Arctiidae.
 Mahavira TV+ Mahavira TV is an Hindi-language 24/7 Hindu television channel, owned by Mahavira Limted India.
Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence+ Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence is an illustrated children’s story based upon the life of a teacher of the Jain faith.