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the Jain mathematician|Mahāvīra (mathematician)

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Italic title:
Jain deity
24th Jain ''Tirthankara''

Parshvanatha+
Ahimsā+ (non-injury), Anekantavada+, Aparigraha+
Siddhartha+
Trishala+
Ikshvaku+
Asadh Sud 6
Vaishali+
Vardhmana
Chaitra+ Sud 13
Vaishali+
Kartik+ Vad 10
Vaishali+
Vaisakh+ Sud 10
Rijuvaluka
Asho+ Vad Amaas (Kartik+ Amavasya / Dipawali+)
Pawapuri+, Bihar+
Golden+
Lion+
72 years
Shala+
Matanga
Siddhayini or Siddhayika
Gautama+

Jainism:
'''Mahavira''' (), also known as '''Vardhamāna''', was the twenty-fourth and last Jain ''Tirthankara+'' (Teaching God). Mahavira was born into a royal family in what is now Bihar+, India+, in 599 BC. At the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening+, and abandoned worldly things, including his clothes, and became a monk+. For the next twelve-and-a-half years, Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe penance, after which he became ''kevalī'' (omniscient).

For the next 30 years, he travelled throughout South Asia+ to teach Jain philosophy+. Mahavira taught that the observance of the vows ''ahimsa+'' (non-injury), ''satya+'' (truth), ''asteya+'' (non-stealing), ''brahmacharya+'' (chastity) and ''aparigraha+'' (non-attachment) is necessary to elevate the quality of life. He gave the principle of ''Anekantavada+'' (pluralism), ''Syadavada'' and ''Nyadavada''. The teachings of Mahavira were compiled by Gautama Swami+ (his chief disciple) and were called ''Jain Agamas+''. Most of these ''Agamas'' are not available today. Jains believe Mahavira attained ''moksha+'' (liberation from the cycle of birth and death) at the age of 72.



In Jainism+, a ''Tirthankara+'' (Maker of the River-Crossing or Teaching God) signifies the founder of a ''tirtha'' which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths (called ''saṃsāra+''). cosmic time cycle. Mahavira was the last ''Tirthankara'' of ''avasarpani'' (present descending phase). tīrtha'' of Mahavira by the name ''Sarvodaya+'' (universal uplift).sfn|Jain|Upadhye|2000|p=54

Mahavira is often called the founder of Jainism, but this was not the case because the Jain tradition recognizes his predecessors and he is considered the 24th Tirthankara. Zimmer|1953|p=220


According to Jain texts, Mahavira's childhood name was ''Vardhamāna'' ("the one who grows"), because of the increased prosperity in the kingdom at the time of his birth. Zimmer|1953|p=223

Buddhist+ texts refer to Mahavira as ''Nigaṇṭha Jñātaputta''. ''Nigaṇṭha'' means "without knot, tie, or string" and ''Jñātaputta'' (son of ''Natas''), refers to his clan of origin as ''Jñāta'' or ''Naya'' (Prakrit+). He is also known as ''Sramana+'' (seeker).



Belonging to ''Kashyapa gotra+'', Dundas|2002|p=25 According to Jainism, after his birth, anointment and ''abhisheka+'' (consecration)—carried out by Indra+ on Mount Meru+. work=The Times Of India+ |date=14 October 2003 Jain traditions date Mahavira as living from 599 B.C. to 527 B.C. Western historians date Mahavira as living from 480 BC to 408 BC. Some Western scholars suggest Mahavira died around 425 BC.

As the son of a king, Mahavira had all luxuries of life at his disposal. According to the second chapter of the ''Śvētāmbara+'' text ''Acharanga Sutra+'', both his parents were followers of Parshvanatha+ and lay devotees of Jain ascetics. Champat Rai Jain|1939|p=97 according to the ''Digambara+'' tradition, Mahavira's parents wanted him to marry Yashoda but Mahavira refused to marry. According to the ''Śvētāmbara'' tradition, he was married to Yashoda at a young age and had one daughter, Priyadarshana.

At the age of thirty, Mahavira abandoned the comforts of royal life and left his home and family to live an ascetic life in the pursuit of spiritual awakening. He underwent severe penances, meditated under the Ashoka tree+ and discarded his clothes. There is a graphic description of his hardships and humiliation in the ''Acharanga Sutra''. According to ''Kalpa Sūtra+'', Mahavira spent forty-two monsoons of his ascetic life at Astikagrama, Champapuri+, Prstichampa, Vaishali, Vanijagrama, Nalanda+, Mithila+, Bhadrika, Alabhika, Panitabhumi, Shravasti+ and Pawapuri+.




After twelve years of rigorous penance, at the age of 43, Mahavira achieved the state of ''Kevala Jnana+'' (omniscience or infinite knowledge) under a Sāla tree+ according to traditional accounts. The details of this event are mentioned in Jain texts like ''Uttar-purāņa'' and ''Harivamśa-purāņa''. The ''Acharanga Sutra'' describes Mahavira as all-seeing. The ''Sutrakritanga+'' elaborates the concept as all-knowing and provides details of other qualities of Mahavira. Jains believe that Mahavira had the most auspicious body (''paramaudārika śarīra'') and was free from eighteen imperfections when he attained omniscience.

For thirty years after gaining omniscience, Mahavira travelled throughout in India to teach his philosophy. According to the Jain tradition, Mahavira had 14,000 ''muni'' (male ascetics), 36,000 ''aryika+'' (nuns), 159,000 sravakas+ (laymen) and 318,000 sravikas (laywomen) as his followers. Some of the royal followers included King Srenika (popularly known as Bimbisara+) of Magadha+, Kunika of Anga+ and Chetaka of Videha+.



Jains believe Mahavira attained ''moksha'' (liberation from the cycle of birth and death) at the age of seventy-two and his soul is now resting in ''Siddhashila+'' (abode of the liberated souls). According to Jain texts, Mahavira attained ''nirvana'' (final release) at the town of Pawapuri (now in Bihar+). von Glasenapp|1999|p=328 Today, a Jain temple+ called Jal Mandir+ stands at the place where Mahavira is believed to have attained ''moksha''.

Mahavira's previous births are discussed in Jain texts such as the ''Mahapurana'' and ''Tri-shashti-shalaka-purusha-charitra''. While a soul undergoes countless reincarnations in the transmigratory cycle of ''saṃsāra+'' (world), the births of a ''Tirthankara'' are reckoned from the time he determined the ''causes of karma+'' and developed the ''Ratnatraya+''. Jain texts discuss twenty-six births of Mahavira before his incarnation as a ''Tirthankara''. Dundas|2002|p=21




Mahavira's teachings were compiled by his ''Ganadhara+'' (chief disciple), Gautama Swami+. The sacred canonical scriptures comprised of twelve parts. According to Vijay K. Jain, "These scriptures contained the most comprehensive and accurate description of every branch of learning that one needs to know. The knowledge contained in these scriptures was transmitted orally by the teachers to their disciple saints." According to the ''Digambaras'', ''Āchārya+'' Bhutabali+ was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original canon. Later, some learned ''Āchāryas'' started to restore, compile and write down the teachings of Lord Mahavira that were the subject matter of ''Agamas''. ''Āchārya'' Dharasena, in first century CE, guided two ''Āchāryas'', ''Āchārya'' Pushpadant+ and ''Āchārya'' Bhutabali, to write down these teachings. The two ''Āchāryas'' wrote on palm leaves, ''Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama+''—among the oldest known ''Digambara'' Jaina texts. Jain ''Agamas'' prescribe five major ''vratas'' (vows) that both ascetics and householders have to follow. These ethical principles were preached by Mahavira:
# ''Ahimsa'' (Non-violence or Non-injury). Mahavira taught that every living being has sanctity and dignity of its own and it should be respected just as one expects one's own sanctity and dignity to be respected. ''Ahimsa'' is formalised into Jain doctrine as the first and foremost vow. According to the Jain text, ''Tattvarthasutra+'': "The severance of vitalities out of passion is injury".
# ''Satya'' (Truthfulness)—not to lie or speak what is not commendable. According to the Jain text ''Sarvārthasiddhi+'': "that which causes pain and suffering to the living is not commendable, whether it refers to actual facts or not".
# ''Asteya'' (Non-stealing), which states one should not take anything if not properly given.
# ''Brahmacharya'' (Chastity), which stresses steady but determined restraint over yearning for sensual pleasures.
# ''Aparigraha'' (Non-attachment)—non-attachment to both inner possessions (liking, disliking) and external possessions like property.

Mahavira's philosophy has eight cardinal (law of trust), three metaphysical (''dravya+'', ''Jīva+'' and ''ajiva+''), and five ethical principles. The objective is to elevate the quality of life. Mahavira said an individual or society should exercise self-restraint to achieve social peace, security and an enlightened society.


Mahavira preached that ''ahimsa'' (non-injury) is the supreme ethical and moral virtue. Mahavira taught that no one likes pain and therefore non-injury must cover all living beings. According to Mahatma Gandhi+:


Another fundamental teaching of Mahavira was ''Anekantavada'' (pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints).



''Tiloya-paṇṇatti+'' of Yativṛṣabha+ discusses almost all of the events connected with the life of Mahavira in a form convenient to memorise. ''Acharya'' Jinasena's ''Mahapurāṇa'' include ''Ādi purāṇa+'' and ''Uttara-purāṇa''. It was completed by his disciple ''Acharya'' Gunabhadra in the 8th century. In ''Uttara-purāṇa'' the life of Mahavira is described in three ''parvans'' (74–76) in 1818 verses. ''Vardhamacharitra'' is a Sanskrit+ ''kāvya'' (poem) that describe the life of Mahavira written by Asaga+ in 853.

* ''Svayambhustotra'' by ''Acharya'' Samantabhadra+ is the adoration of twenty-four ''Tirthankaras''. Its eight ''shloka+s'' (aphorisms) adore the qualities of Mahavira. One such ''shloka'' is:
* ''Yuktyanusasana'' by ''Acharya'' Samantabhadra is a poetic work consisting of sixty-four verses in praise of ''Mahavira''.
* ''Mahaveerashtak Stotra'' was composed by Jain poet Bhagchand.

Mahavira's teachings influenced many personalities. Rabindranath Tagore+ wrote:


A major event is associated with the 2,500th anniversary of the ''Nirvana'' of Mahavira in 1974. According to Padmanabh Jaini+:


''Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence+'' is an illustrated children’s story based upon the life of Mahavira.

Mahavira is usually depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture with the symbol of a lion beneath him. Zimmer|1953|p=225 The lion emblem of Mahavira is usually carved below the legs of the ''Tirthankara''. Like all ''Tirthankaras'', Mahavira is depicted with ''Shrivatsa+'' Melton|Baumann|2010|p=1553




commons category:


* Arihant (Jainism)+
* God in Jainism+
* Digambara monk+
* History of Jainism+
* Timeline of Jainism+
* Siddhashila+
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* citation |last=Jain |first=Hiralal |authorlink=Hiralal Jain |last2=Upadhye |first2=Adinath Neminath |authorlink2=A.N. Upadhye |title=Mahavira, his times and his philosophy of life
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Mahavira+ Mahavira (Mahāvīra), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth and last Jain Tirthankara (Teaching God).
Mahavir Jayanti+ Mahavir Jayanti, also known as Mahavir Janma Kalyanak, is the most important religious festival for Jains.
 Mahaviracharita+ Not to be confused with Hemachandra's Jain work about Mahavira
Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence+ Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence is an illustrated children’s story based upon the life of Mahavira, a teacher of the Jain faith.
 Mahavira (disambiguation)+ Mahavira may refer to:
Mahavira Hall+ A Mahāvīra Hall or Hall of Mahāvīra (Chinese: 大雄寶殿; pinyin: Dàxióngbǎodiàn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tōa--hiông-pó-tiān; literally: "Hall of the Great Hero") is the main building of a traditional temple complex in East Asian Buddhism, where Gautama Buddha and other buddhas and bodhisattvas are enshrined.
 Mahāvīra (mathematician)+ Mahāvīra (or Mahaviracharya, "Mahavira the Teacher") was a 9th-century Jain mathematician from Bihar, India.
 Vira Nirvana Samvat+ The Vira Nirvana Samvat (era) is a calendar era beginning on 15 October 527 BCE. It commemorates the nirvana of Mahavira, the 24th Jain Tirthankara.
 Mahavira TV+ Mahavira TV is an Hindi-language 24/7 Hindu television channel, owned by Mahavira Limted India.
 Barsine (moth)+ Barsine is a genus of moth in the family Arctiidae.