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The '''Multinational Force in Lebanon''' (also '''MNF''') was an international peacekeeping+ force created in September of 1982, after the demand was made by Lebanon+ to the Secretary-General of the United Nations+ and was subsequently dissolved in March 1984 following the October 1983 Beirut barracks bombing+. The Peacekeeping force was and initially to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestine Liberation Organization+. The participants included Her Majesty's+ 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards+, American contingents of United States Marine Corps+ and United States Navy+; 32 French regiments and units of the French Armed Forces+, French paratroopers+, including regiments of the French Foreign Legion+ and untis of the National Gendarmerie+; Italian paratroopers from the Folgore Brigade+, infantry+ units from the Bersaglieri+ regiments and Marines of the San Marco Battalion+.

The mission of the international peacekeeping force ( Multinational Force of Lebanon ) was replaced by the mission of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon+ already present in ground operations since 1978.
The mission of the mutliforce was to aid and support the Lebanese Armed Forces+ to restore the sovereignty of the Lebanese Government+ at the request of the later in Beirut+, its constituent areas and insure and guarantee the secruity and safety of civilian populations.

With the United States+, France+, Italy+ and the United Kingdom+ forming the multinational force; a strong naval+ presence was present in the Mediterranean+ to provide support in the greater Lebanon+.







A + equipped with Matra+ rockets onboard à bord Foch+ during the [[Lebanese Civil War">Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard+ equipped with Matra+ rockets onboard à bord Foch+ during the [[Lebanese Civil War+ equipped with Matra+ rockets onboard à bord Foch+ during the [[Lebanese Civil War" style="color: #CCCCCC;">+ in 1983.

Avoiding accentuation escalation and sticking with the mission+ while protecting innocent civilians; women and children; and local francophone+ mediterreanean lifestyle+ way of life, maintaining order and mainly maintaining the peace+ effort+ from 1982 to 1984 required the service deployment rotation of 32 French Armed Forces+ regiments including parachute regiments+ and units from the French Army+, the French Navy+, the French Air Force+ and the National Gendarmerie+:

* section T.G.P 41st Transmission Regiment+
* 8th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment+
* 3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment+
* 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment+
* 6th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment+
* 1st Marine Infantry Regiment+
* 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment+
* 3rd Marine Infantry Regiment+
* 21st Marine Infantry Regiment+
* 11th Marine Artillery Regiment+
* 9th Command and Support Regiment+
* 41st Infantry Regiment+
* Marine Tank Regiment+
* 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment+
* 59th Engineer Company+
* 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment+
* 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment+
* 1st Foreign Regiment+
* 31st French Brigade+
* 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment+
* 1st Parachute Hussard Regiment+
* 31st Command and Transmission Company
* 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment+
* 9th Parachute Chasseur Regiment+
* 501st Tank Combat Regiment+
* 35th Parachute Artillery Regiment+
* 12th Artillery Regiment+
* 68th Artillery Regiment+
* National Gendarmerie+ - 1st Marching Group Squadron of Auxilary Gendarmes
* Commando Trepel+
* Commando de Montfort+
* Commando Hubert+
* 9/11 Parachute Squadron of Mobile Gendarmerie+

The French Armed Forces+ landed in Beirut+ on August 21, with the U.S. Marines+ 2nd Battalion 8th Marines+, the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit+ known back then as the 32 Marine Amphibious Unit+ arriving on August 25 and the Italian Armed Forces+ Bersaglieri+ (2nd Bersaglieri "Governolo") on August 26. This initial force consisted of 850 Americans+, 860 French+, and 575 Italian+ troops. The PLO withdrew from Beirut+ to Tunisia+ on August 30; consequently, the Multinational Force troop contingent later withdrew to their respective ships+ in the Mediterranean Sea+.



On August 19, 1982; the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment+ succeeds following a request from the Lebanese Government+ to allow the departure of the palestinian contingent from Beyrouth+. Following the massacres of Sabra and Chatila; international consciences decided to put in motion a reinforced security force. Subsequently, the regiments and units of the French Armed Forces+ and French paratroopers+ relayed each other at Beyrouth+ to fulfill a mission of mediation and preservation of peace. Operating within the contigent of the multinational force at Beirut+ which counted already american troops+ stationed at the aerodrome; Italian troops+ centered in the center of the aerodrome, and British troops+ implanted near the tabacco manufacturing facility; the 31st French Brigade+ reinforced by the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment+ and a detachment of the 17th Parachute Engineer Regiment+ assures security and confidence of trust in the greater Lebanon and Beyrouth.

On May 19, 1983; the first elements of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment+ disembarked within the cadre of the operation. On September 26, 1983; the last participating contigents forming operation DIODON leave Lebanon+. Caporal-Chef+ Vuillermet dies of his wounds.


2,300 Italian troops+ landed in Beirut with the "mission Italcon" on September 24: paratroopers from the Folgore Brigade+, infantry+ units from the Bersaglieri+ regiments, Marines of the San Marco+, and a military medical corp with a field hospital. Italian troops centered in the center of the Beirut aerodrome and near the refugee camps. The commander was the General .





Americans had previously been involved+ in Lebanese affairs, during the 1958 Lebanon crisis+. In that intervention, 14,000 Americans were sent to Lebanon by President Dwight D. Eisenhower+ to quell the opposition to President Camille Chamoun+ and neighboring countries. The operation was considered a success.

In 1975, the Lebanese Civil War+ began. Further instability was caused in 1982 by the invasion of Lebanon+ by Israel+, which targeted the Palestine Liberation Organization+ (PLO) based there.

As the capital of Beirut+ was besieged by the Israelis, U.S. Ambassador Philip Habib+ negotiated with the warring parties for an end to the fighting and for the establishment of a peacekeeping force in Beirut. In August 1982, he was successful in bringing about an agreement for the evacuation of Syrian troops and PLO fighters from Beirut. The agreement also provided for the deployment of a three-nation Multinational Force (MNF) during the period of the evacuation.



On September 14, Lebanese President Bachir Gemayel+ was assassinated. Then, from September 16–18, hundreds of Palestinian refugee+s were murdered by the Phalangist+-led Lebanese Forces+ (LF) militia (who were allied with the Israeli Army+ and had the presidency in Lebanon), backed by some elements of the also pro-Israeli South Lebanon Army+ (SLA) in the Sabra and Shatila massacre+s. This incident prompted U.S. President Ronald Reagan+ to organize a new MNF "Multinational Force" with France and Italy. On September 29, this new force entered Beirut, with about 1,200 troops. Their stated mission was to help the new Lebanese government and army with stability.

This new force consisted of the 2nd Battalion 8th Marine Regiment and US Army Soldiers. They were followed by the 3rd Battalion 8th Marines in October 1982. The Battalion Landing Team's headquarters was based at Beirut International Airport+. France's contingent of 1,500 paratroopers were based in West Beirut, and 1,400 Italian troops (paratroopers of the Folgore Brigade, Bersaglieri regiments and the San Marco Regiment were based in the area between West Beirut and the airport. In February 1983, United Kingdom armored cars from 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards joined the MNF.

During the winter of 1982-1983, the MNF was successful in its mission. Though officially neutral+, the force was responsible for preventing attacks from various Lebanese factions and the Israeli Army+. The MNF increasingly came under fire from factions of the Lebanese Civil War. Foot and vehicle patrols were conducted routinely throughout Beirut in an effort to gather information and provide a visible presence demonstrating multinational force commitment to the people of Lebanon.

On February 14, 1983, the 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines relieved the 3rd Battalion, 8th Marines in the American sector. When harsh winter weather with low temperatures, high winds, and deep snows threatened Lebanese villages high in the mountains northeast of Beirut, the Marines were asked by the Lebanese Government on February 21 to provide a relief column to rescue Lebanese civilians stranded in Qatarba. The rescue mission was conducted February 22–24. Lt.Col Don Anderson, the commander of Battalion Landing Team 2/6 led a column of nine thirty ton amphibious tractors (amtracs) and several wheeled vehicles across rugged mountain terrain, reaching Qatarba 16 hours after leaving the Beirut International Airport+. The amtracs created a landing zone by packing down deep snows so that additional food and heating fuel could be delivered to the village by helicopters. Civilian casualties who could not be treated on-scene by the battalion medical team were airlifted out, while those needing less serious medical attention were evacuated to Beirut by amtrac on February 24, 1983.

On April 18, 1983, the U.S. embassy+ in West Beirut was bombed+, killing 63 people. A suicide terrorist driving a van packed with 2000 pounds of high explosives (PETN+) crashed into the embassy lobby detonating the payload. This blast was a clear sign of opposition to the MNF. The embassy was located in the French sector, and French Marines immediately responded to provide security and begin rescue operations. The French commander, Brigadier General Michel Datin placed his responding forces under the operational control of Colonel Jim Mead, the MAU Commander. Lt.Col Don Anderson provided a reinforced rifle company (Company F) to take over security the embassy compound to enable rescue and recovery operations. Once recovery operations were concluded, a heavily reinforced rifle platoon from Company F was stationed at the embassy through the end of May 1983, when 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines was relieved by 1st Battalion, 8th Marines.

The Israeli Army agreed on May 17, 1983 to withdraw from Beirut. In the summer of 1983 U.S. troops at the airport were repeatedly shelled by members of Shiite Muslim+ and Druze militia+s. Several Marines were killed and others wounded. In response, the U.S. warships , , , , and shelled Shiite and Druze positions near Beirut.



The MNF was given a devastating blow on October 23 in an act of terrorism+, when truck bomb+s driven by suicide bomber+s destroyed the U.S. and French barracks in Beirut, killing 241 American servicemen and 58 French paratroopers+. With this incident, the MNF suffered its greatest number of casualties and drew calls to withdraw from Lebanon. Still, President Reagan said the troops would stay.

Vought A-7E Corsair II+ aircraft of attack squadrons [[VFA-15">LTV A-7 Corsair II">Vought A-7E Corsair II+ aircraft of attack squadrons [[VFA-15Vought A-7E Corsair II+ aircraft of attack squadrons [[VFA-15" style="color: #CCCCCC;">+ Valions and VFA-87+ Golden Warriors of Carrier Air Wing Six (CVW-6)+ line the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Independence (CV-62)+ in December 1983

French Navy+ warplanes retaliated in November to the bombings by striking Iranian Revolutionary Guard+'s barracks in Baalbek+, in the Beqaa Valley+, though it did minor damage. At this time, tensions rose between Syria+ and the United States as Syrian anti-aircraft+ batteries fired on U.S. aircraft as they patrolled Lebanese airspace. This culminated in the first direct U.S. military involvement in Lebanon on December 4. After being fired upon by Syrian missiles, U.S. aircraft targeted Syrian missile batteries in the mountains east of Beirut. In the process, Syrian 9K31 Strela-1+ or man-portable Strela 2+ surface-to-air missiles shot down two American planes, an A-6 Intruder+ and an A-7 Corsair+. The pilot of the A-6, Lieutenant Mark Lange (flying from USS John F. Kennedy+), was killed; his Bombardier/Navigator, Lieutenant Bobby Goodman+, ejected and was captured by Syrian soldiers. Lt. Goodman was held for 30 days before his released was facilitated by Jesse Jackson+. Lt. Lange's body was returned. From the A-7, the pilot ejected and was rescued, although he suffered severe injuries.

On the same day, eight U.S. Servicemen were killed when Syrian-backed militias shelled the airport observation post.

In response to more fire, the battleship USS ''New Jersey''+ fired on Lebanon on December 14 and 15. Meanwhile, Yasser Arafat+ and his PLO left Tripoli+ on December 20 on five Greek+ ships bound for Tunisia+. The MNF was targeted again by bombs on December 21, with a truck bomb killing a French soldier and 14 Lebanese outside a French military base, and a bomb killing four at a Western-owned bar.

The captured American crewman, Lt. Bobby Goodman, was released January 3, 1984, after negotiations with Reverend Jesse Jackson+. At the same time, U.S. President Ronald Reagan was pressured for a troop withdrawal from Lebanon by Congress+. These calls were increased after the Lebanese PM and his cabinet resigned February 5. Shiite and Druze militiamen began fighting outside Beirut on February 6 and threw the capital into chaos. Reagan ordered the 1,700 Marines to begin withdrawing on February 7. The following day, February 8, the USS New Jersey was again called upon to fire its main battery, this time against Syrian and Druze positions in the Beqaa Valley. During this Naval Gunfire Support (NGFS) mission, the "Big J" fired 288 rounds of its 16" projectiles. Thirty rounds hit a Syrian command post, killing the general commanding Syrian forces in Lebanon, and several of his senior officers. The Italians pulled out on February 20; the Marines followed on February 26. The last French troops left on March 31.

The United States lost 265 servicemen in Lebanon, all but nine in hostile incidents, and all but 24 in the barracks bombing. 159 were wounded. France lost 89 soldiers (58 Paratroopers+ of them in the barracks bombing) and the Italians lost two.

*Lebanese Armed Forces+
*1958 Lebanon crisis+
*Hezbollah+
*Islamic Jihad Organization+
*Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)+
*Lebanese Forces+
*South Lebanon Army+
*United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)+
*Irish Army+

* Frédéric Pons+, ''Les Paras sacrifiés, Beyrouth, 1983-1984''( The Sacrificed Paras, Beyrouth, 1983-1984) Presses de la Cité+, 1994.




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Multinational Force in Lebanon+ The Multinational Force in Lebanon (also MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in September of 1982, after the demand was made by Lebanon to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and was subsequently dissolved in March 1984 following the October 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

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