Orientalism+ Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects of Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures (Eastern cultures) by writers, designers and artists from the West.
Orientalism (book)+ Orientalism (1978), by Edward Said, is a foundational text for the academic field of Post-colonial Studies.
Orientalism in early modern France+ Orientalism in early modern France refers to the interaction of pre-modern France with the Orient, and especially the cultural, scientific, artistic and intellectual impact of these interactions, ranging from the academic field of Oriental studies to Orientalism in fashions in the decorative arts.

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'''Orientalism''' is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects of Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures (Eastern culture+s) by writers, designers and artists from the West. In particular, '''Orientalist painting''', depicting more specifically "the Middle East+", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century Academic art+, and the literatures of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes.

Since the publication of Edward Said+'s ''Orientalism+'' in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian and North African societies. In Said's analysis, the West essentializes+ these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied, depicted, and reproduced. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational, flexible, and superior.





"Orientalism" refers to the Orient+ or East, in contrast to the Occident+ or West, and often, as seen by the West. Orient came into English from Middle French ''orient'' (the root word is ''oriēns'', L). ''Oriēns'' has related meanings: the eastern part of the world, the part of the sky in which the sun rises, the east, the rising sun, daybreak, and dawn. Together with the geographical concepts of different ages, its reference of "eastern part" has changed. For example, when Chaucer wrote "That they conquered many regnes grete / In the orient, with many a fair Such disdain did not prevent the ''Société des Peintres Orientalistes+'' ("Society of Orientalist Painters") being founded in 1893, with Jean-Léon Gérôme+ as honorary president; the word was less often used as a term for artists in 19th century England.

Since the 18th century, Orientalist has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies+; however the use in English+ of Orientalism to describe the academic subject of "Oriental studies" is rare; the ''Oxford English Dictionary+'' he used the term to describe what he argued was a pervasive Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the East, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism+ in the 18th and 19th centuries. Said was critical of this scholarly tradition and of some modern scholars, particularly Bernard Lewis+. Said's Orientalism elaborates Antonio Gramsci+'s concept of hegemony+ and Michel Foucault+'s theorisation of discourse+ and relationship between knowledge and power. Said was mainly concerned with literature in the widest sense, especially French literature, and did not cover visual art and Orientalist painting. Others, notably Linda Nochlin+, have tried to extend his analysis to art, "with uneven results". Said's work became one of the foundational texts of Postcolonialism+ or ''Postcolonial studies''.


The Moresque+ style of Renaissance ornament+ is a European adaptation of the Islamic arabesque+ that began in the late 15th century and was to be used in some types of work, such as bookbinding+, until almost the present day. Early architectural use of motifs lifted from the Indian subcontinent has sometimes been called "Hindoo style+". One of the earliest examples is the façade of Guildhall, London+ (1788–1789). The style gained momentum in the west with the publication of views of India by William Hodges+, and William+ and Thomas Daniell+ from about 1795. Examples of "Hindoo" architecture are Sezincote House+ (c. 1805) in Gloucestershire+, built for a nabob+ returned from Bengal+, and the Royal Pavilion+ in Brighton+.

''Turquerie+'', which began as early as the late 15th century, continued until at least the 18th century, and included both the use of "Turkish" styles in the decorative arts, the adoption of Turkish costume at times, and interest in art depicting the Ottoman Empire+ itself. Venice, the traditional trading partner of the Ottomans, was the earliest centre, with France becoming more prominent in the 18th century.

''Chinoiserie+'' is the catch-all term for the fashion for Chinese themes in decoration in Western Europe, beginning in the late 17th century and peaking in waves, especially Rococo+ Chinoiserie, ''ca.'' 1740–1770. From the Renaissance+ to the 18th century, Western designers attempted to imitate the technical sophistication of Chinese ceramics with only partial success. Early hints of Chinoiserie appeared in the 17th century in nations with active East India companies: England (the British East India Company+), Denmark (the Danish East India Company+), the Netherlands (the Dutch East India Company+) and France (the French East India Company+). Tin-glazed pottery made at Delft+ and other Dutch towns adopted genuine blue-and-white+ Ming+ decoration from the early 17th century. Early ceramic wares made at Meissen+ and other centers of true porcelain+ imitated Chinese shapes for dishes, vases and teaware+s (see Chinese export porcelain+).

Pleasure pavilions in "Chinese taste" appeared in the formal parterres of late Baroque and Rococo German palaces, and in tile panels at Aranjuez+ near Madrid+. Thomas Chippendale+'s mahogany tea tables and china cabinets, especially, were embellished with fretwork glazing and railings, ''ca'' 1753–70. Sober ''homages'' to early Xing scholars' furnishings were also naturalized, as the ''tang'' evolved into a mid-Georgian side table and squared slat-back armchairs that suited English gentlemen as well as Chinese scholars. Not every adaptation of Chinese design principles falls within mainstream "chinoiserie." Chinoiserie media included imitations of lacquer and painted tin (tôle) ware that imitated japanning, early painted wallpapers in sheets, and ceramic figurines and table ornaments. Small pagoda+s appeared on chimneypieces and full-sized ones in gardens. Kew+ has a magnificent garden pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers+. The Wilhelma+ (1846) in Stuttgart+ is an example of Moorish Revival+ architecture. Leighton House+, built for the artist Lord Leighton+, has a conventional facade but elaborate Arab-style interiors, including original Islamic tiles and other elements as well as Victorian Orientalizing work.

After 1860, ''Japonisme+,'' sparked by the importing of Japanese woodblock prints+, became an important influence in the western arts. In particular, many modern French artists such as Monet+ and Degas+ were influenced by the Japanese style. Mary Cassatt+, an American artist who worked in France, used elements of combined patterns, flat planes and shifting perspective of Japanese prints in her own images. The paintings of James McNeill Whistler+ and his "Peacock Room+" demonstrated how he used aspects of Japanese tradition and are some of the finest works of the genre. California architects Greene and Greene+ were inspired by Japanese elements in their design of the Gamble House+ and other buildings.

In architecture, Egyptian revival architecture+ was popular mostly in the early and mid-19th century, and Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture+ or Moorish Revival architecture+, covering a variety of general Islamic or Indian features, in the later part of the century; "Saracenic" referred to styles from Arabic-speaking areas. Both were sometimes used in the Orient itself by colonial governments.


Depictions of Islamic "Moors+" and "Turks" (imprecisely named Muslim groups of southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia) can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. In Biblical scenes in Early Netherlandish painting+, secondary figures, especially Romans, were given exotic costumes that distantly reflected the clothes of the Near East+. The Three Magi+ in Nativity scenes+ were an especial focus for this. In general art with Biblical settings would not be considered as Orientalist except where contemporary or historicist Middle Eastern detail or settings is a feature of works, as with some paintings by Gentile Bellini+ and others, and a number of 19th century works. Renaissance Venice+ had a phase of particular interest in depictions of the Ottoman Empire+ in painting and prints+. Gentile Bellini, who travelled to Constantinople+ and painted the Sultan, and Vittore Carpaccio+ were the leading painters. By then the depictions were more accurate, with men typically dressed all in white. The depiction of Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting+ sometimes draws from Orientalist interest, but more often just reflects the prestige these expensive objects had in the period.

Jean-Étienne Liotard+ (1702–1789) visited Istanbul+ and painted numerous pastel+s of Turkish domestic scenes; he also continued to wear Turkish dress for much of the time when back in Europe. The ambitious Scottish 18th-century artist Gavin Hamilton+ found a solution to the problem of using modern dress, considered unheroic and inelegant, in history painting+ by using Middle Eastern settings with Europeans wearing local costume, as travellers were advised to do. His huge ''James Dawkins and Robert Wood Discovering the Ruins of Palmyra+'' (1758, now Edinburgh) elevates tourism to the heroic, with the two travellers wearing what look very like toga+s. Many travellers had themselves painted in exotic Eastern dress on their return, including Lord Byron+, as did many who had never left Europe, including Madame de Pompadour+. Byron's poetry was highly influential in introducing Europe to the heady cocktail of Romanticism+ in exotic Oriental settings which was to dominate 19th century Oriental art.



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French Orientalist painting was transformed by Napoleon+'s ultimately unsuccessful invasion of Egypt and Syria+ in 1798-1801, which stimulated great public interest in Egyptology+, and was also recorded in subsequent years by Napoleon's court painters, especially Baron Gros+, although the Middle Eastern campaign was not one on which he accompanied the army. Two of his most successful paintings, ''Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa+'' (1804) and ''Battle of Abukir+'' (1806) focus on the Emperor, as he was by then, but include many Egyptian figures, as does the less effective ''Napoleon at the Battle of the Pyramids'' (1810). Girodet+'s ''La Révolte du Caire'' (1810) was another large and prominent example. A well-illustrated ''Description de l’Égypte'' was published by the French Government in twenty volumes between 1809 and 1828, concentrating on antiquities+.

Eugène Delacroix+'s first great success, ''The Massacre at Chios+'' (1824) was painted before he visited the Greece or the East, and followed his friend Théodore Géricault+'s ''The Raft of the Medusa+'' in showing a recent incident in distant parts that had aroused public opinion. Greece+ was still fighting for independence from the Ottomans, and was effectively as exotic as the more Near Eastern parts of the empire. Delacroix followed up with ''Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi+'' (1827), commemorating a siege of the previous year, and the ''Death of Sardanapalus+'', inspired by Lord Byron+, which although set in antiquity has been credited with beginning the mixture of sex, violence, lassitude and exoticism which runs through much French Orientalist painting. In 1832 Delacroix finally visited what is now Algeria+, recently conquered by the French, and Morocco+, as part of a diplomatic mission to the Sultan of Morocco+. He was greatly struck by what he saw, comparing the North African way of life to that of the Ancient Romans, and continued to paint subjects from his trip on his return to France. Like many later Orientalist painters, he was frustrated by the difficulty of sketching women, and many of his scenes featured Jews+ or warriors on horses. However he was apparently able to get into the women's' quarters or harem+ of a house to sketch what became ''The Women of Algiers+''; few later harem scenes had this claim to authenticity.


When Ingres, the director of the French ''Académie de peinture'', painted a highly colored vision of a ''Turkish bath+'', he made his eroticized Orient publicly acceptable by his diffuse generalizing of the female forms (who might all have been the same model). More open sensuality was seen as acceptable in the exotic Orient.Tromans, 135 This imagery persisted in art into the early 20th century, as evidenced in Matisse+'s orientalist semi-nudes from his Nice period, and his use of Oriental costumes and patterns. Ingres' pupil Théodore Chassériau+ (1819–1856) had already achieved success with his nude ''The Toilette of Esther+'' (1841, Louvre+) and equestrian portrait of ''Ali-Ben-Hamet, Caliph of Constantine and Chief of the Haractas, Followed by his Escort'' (1846) before he first visited the East, but in later decades the steamship+ made travel much easier and increasing numbers of artists traveled to the Middle East and beyond, painting a wide range of Oriental scenes.

In many of these works, they portrayed the Orient as exotic, colorful and sensual, not to say stereotyped+. Such works typically concentrated on Oriental Islamic, Hebraic, and other Semitic cultures, as those were the ones visited by artists as France became more engaged in North Africa. French artists such as Eugène Delacroix+, Jean-Léon Gérôme+ and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres+ painted many works depicting Islamic culture, often including lounging odalisque+s. They stressed both lassitude and visual spectacle. Other scenes, especially in genre painting+, have been seen as either closely comparable to their equivalents set in modern-day or historical Europe, or as also reflecting an Orientalist mind-set in the Saidian sense of the term. Gérôme was the precursor, and often the master, of a number of French painters in the later part of the century whose works were often frankly salacious, frequently featuring scenes in harems, public baths and slave auctions (the last two also available with classical decor), and responsible, with others, for "the equation of Orientalism with the nude in pornographic mode"; (''Gallery, below'')


Though British political interest in the territories of the unravelling Ottoman Empire was as intense as in France, it was mostly more discreetly exercised. The origins of British Orientalist 19th-century painting owe more to religion than military conquest or the search for plausible locations for naked women. The leading British genre painter+, Sir David Wilkie+ was 55 when he travelled to Istanbul+ and Jerusalem+ in 1840, dying off Gibraltar+ during the return voyage. Though not noted as a religious painter, Wilkie made the trip with a Protestant+ agenda to reform religious painting, as he believed that: "a Martin Luther+ in painting is as much called for as in theology, to sweep away the abuses by which our divine pursuit is encumbered", by which he meant traditional Christian iconography+. He hoped to find more authentic settings and decor for Biblical subjects at their original location, though his death prevented more than studies being made. Other artists including the Pre-Raphaelite+ William Holman Hunt+ and David Roberts+ had similar motivations, giving an emphasis on realism in British Orientalist art from the start. The French artist James Tissot+ also used contemporary Middle Eastern landscape and decor for Biblical subjects, with little regard for historical costumes or other fittings.

William Holman Hunt produced a number of major paintings of Biblical subjects drawing on his Middle Eastern travels, improvising variants of contemporary Arab costume and furnishings to avoid specifically Islamic styles, and also some landscapes and genre subjects. The biblical subjects included ''The Scapegoat+'' (1856), ''The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple+'' (1860), and ''The Shadow of Death+'' (1871). ''The Miracle of the Holy Fire+'' (1899) was intended as a picturesque satire on the local Eastern Christians, of whom, like most English visitors, Hunt took a very dim view. His ''A Street Scene in Cairo; The Lantern-Maker's Courtship'' (1854–61) is a rare contemporary narrative scene, as the young man feels his fiancé's face, which he is not allowed to see, through her veil, as a Westerner in the background beats his way up the street with his stick. This a rare intrusion of a clearly contemporary figure into an Orientalist scene; mostly they claim the picturesqueness of the historical painting so popular at the time, without the trouble of researching authentic costumes and settings.

When Gérôme exhibited ''For Sale; Slaves at Cairo'' at the Royal Academy+ in London in 1871, it was "widely found offensive", perhaps partly because the British liked to think they had successfully suppressed the slave trade+ in Egypt, also for cruelty and "representing fleshiness for its own sake". But Rana Kabbani+ believes that "French Orientalist painting, as exemplified by the works of Gérôme, may appear more sensual, gaudy, gory and sexually explicit than its British counterpart, but this is a difference of style not substance ... Similar strains of fascination and repulsion convulsed their artists" Nonetheless, nudity and violence are more evident in British paintings set in the ancient world, and "the iconography of the ''odalisque+'' ... the Oriental sex slave whose image is offered up to the viewer as freely as she herself supposedly was to her master - is almost entirely French in origin", though taken up with enthusiasm by Italian and other painters.

John Frederick Lewis+, who lived for several years in a traditional mansion in Cairo+, painted highly detailed works showing both realistic genre scenes+ of Middle Eastern life and more idealized scenes in upper class Egyptian interiors with no traces of Western cultural influence yet apparent. His very careful and loving representation of Islamic architecture, furnishings, screens, and costumes set new standards of realism, which influenced other artists, including Gérôme in his later works. He "never painted a nude", and his wife modelled for several of his harem scenes, which, with the rare examples by the classicist painter Lord Leighton+, imagine "the harem as a place of almost English domesticity, ... [where]... women's fully clothed respectability suggests a moral healthiness to go with their natural good looks".















Other artists concentrated on landscape painting+, often of desert scenes, including Richard Dadd+ and Edward Lear+. David Roberts+ (1796–1864) produced architectural and landscape views, many of antiquities+, and published very successful books of lithograph+s from them.


Russian Orientalist art was largely concerned with the areas of Central Asia that Russia was conquering during the century, and also in historical painting with the Mongol+s who had dominated Russia for much of the Middle Ages, who were rarely shown in a good light. Nationalist+ historical painting in Central Europe+ and the Balkans+ dwelt on Turkish oppression, with battle scene+s and maidens about to be raped.

The Saidian analysis has not prevented a strong revival of interest in, and collecting of, 19th century Orientalist works since the 1970s, the latter in large part led by Middle Eastern buyers,






* Gustave Boulanger+ (1824–88)
* Frederick Arthur Bridgman+ (1847–1928)
* Eduard Charlemont+ (1848–1906)
* Théodore Chassériau+ (1819–1856)
* Alphonse Étienne Dinet+ (1861–1929)
* Richard Dadd+ (1817–1886)
* Eugène Delacroix+ (1798–1863)
* Ludwig Deutsch+ (1855–1935)
* Edmund Dulac+ (1882–1953)
* Rudolf Ernst+ (1854–1932)
* Arthur von Ferraris+ (1856 – c. 1928)
* Eugène Fromentin+ (1820–1876)
* Jean-Léon Gérôme+ (1824–1904)
* Gustave Achille Guillaumet+ (1840–1887)
* William Holman Hunt+ (1827–1910)
* Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres+ (1780–1867)
* Ecem Kafadar+ (1885–1940)
* Edward Lear+ (1812–1888)
* Frederic Leighton+ (1830–1896)
* Paul Leroy+ (1860–1942)
* John Frederick Lewis+ (1805–1876)
* Jean-Étienne Liotard+ (1702–1789)
* Edwin Longsden Long+ (1829–1891)
* Jean-Baptiste van Mour+ (1671–1731)
* Alberto Pasini+ (1826–1899)
* Théodore Ralli+ (1852–1909)
* Thomas Frederick Mason Sheard (1866–1921)
* David Roberts (painter)+ (1796–1864)
* Giulio Rosati+ (1858–1917)
* Alexandre Roubtzoff+ (1884–1949)
* Adolf Schreyer+ (1828–1899)
* James Tissot+ (1836–1902)
* Vasily Vereshchagin+ (1842–1904)
* Edwin Lord Weeks+ (1849–1903)
* Rudolf Weisse+ (1859 – c. 1930)
* David Wilkie+ (1785–1841)
* Eugène Flandin+ (1809–1889)


Illustration from ''+'', 15th century">The Travels of Marco Polo+'', 15th century+'', 15th century" style="color: #CCCCCC;">+






Authors and composers are not commonly referred to as "Orientalist" in the way that artists are, and relatively few specialized in Oriental topics or styles, or are even best known for their works including them. But many major figures, from Mozart to Flaubert, have produced significant works with Oriental subjects or treatments. Lord Byron+ with his four long "Turkish tales" in poetry, is one of the most important writers to make exotic fantasy Oriental settings a significant theme in the literature of Romanticism+. Verdi's opera ''Aida'' (1871) is set in Egypt as portrayed through the content and the visual spectacle. "Aida" depicts a militaristic Egypt's tyranny over Ethiopia.

In music, Orientalism may be applied to styles occurring in different periods, such as the ''alla Turca'', used by multiple composers including Mozart and Beethoven.Beard and Gloag 2005, 129 The American musicologist Richard Taruskin+ has identified in 19th-century Russian music a strain of Orientalism: "the East as a sign or metaphor, as imaginary geography, as historical fiction, as the reduced and totalized other against which we contruct our (not less reduced and totalized) sense of ourselves". Taruskin concedes that Russian composers, unlike those in France and Germany, felt an "ambivalence" to the theme since "Russia was a contiguous empire in which Europeans, living side by side with 'orientals', identified (and intermarried) with them far more than in the case of other colonial powers". Nonetheless, Taruskin characterizes Orientalism in Romantic Russian music has having melodies "full of close little ornaments and melismas", chromatic accompanying lines, drone bassTaruskin (1997): p. 165 - characteristics which were used by Glinka, Balakirev, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rachmaninov. These musical characteristics evoke "not just the East, but the seductive East that emasculates, enslaves, renders passive. In a word, it signifies the promise of the experience of ''nega'', a prime attribute of the orient as imagined by the Russians. [...] In opera and song, ''nega'' often simply denotes S-E-X a la russe, desired or achieved."

Orientalism is also traceable in music that is considered to have effects of exoticism, including the ''japonisme'' in Claude Debussy's piano music all the way to the sitar being used in recordings by The Beatles.

In his novel ''Salammbô+'', Gustave Flaubert+ used ancient Carthage+ in North Africa as a foil+ to ancient Rome+. He portrayed its culture as morally corrupting and suffused with dangerously alluring eroticism. This novel proved hugely influential on later portrayals of ancient Semitic+ cultures.

The use of the Orient as an exotic backdrop continued in the movies, for instance, those featuring Rudolph Valentino+. The rich Arab in robes returned to become a more popular theme, especially during the oil crisis of the 1970s. In the 1990s, Arab+s portrayed as terrorists became common villain figures in Western movies; portrayals of Jew+s as a mysterious, deceptive, conniving menace with supernatural powers were prevalent in Western and European cultures up until the middle of the 20th century.




* ''The Travels of Marco Polo+'', 13th century
* ''Travels of Sir John Mandeville+'', 14th century invented account of travels.
* Fernão Mendes Pinto+, ''Peregrinação+'' (1556), the most complete of the early Portuguese+ written accounts of the Indic, southeast Asia, China and Japan.
* Christopher Marlowe+, ''Tamburlaine+'', 1588/89
* John Dryden+, ''Aureng-zebe+'' (1675), a heroic drama+ in theory based on the life of the reigning Mughal Emperor+, Aurangzeb+
* Antoine Galland+ – ''Les mille et une nuits+'' (1704–1717), first European translation of ''Arabian Nights+''
* Montesquieu+ – ''Persian Letters+'' (''Lettres persanes'') (1721)
* William Thomas Beckford+ – ''Vathek+'' (1786)
* Robert Southey+ – ''Thalaba the Destroyer+'' (1801)
* Robert Southey+ – ''Curse of Kehama+'' (1810)
* Lord Byron+ – his four "Turkish tales": ''The Bride of Abydos+'', ''The Giaour+'', ''The Corsair+'' (1814), ''Lara, A Tale+'' (1814), and other works
* Samuel Taylor Coleridge+ – ''Kubla Khan+'' (published 1816)
* Thomas Moore+ – ''Lalla-Rookh+'' (published 1817)
* Johann Wolfgang von Goethe+ – ''Westöstlicher Diwan+'' (1819)
* Alexander Pushkin+ - ''Ruslan and Ludmila+'', (1820)
* Ralph Waldo Emerson+ – poem ''Indian Superstition'' (1821)
* Edgar Allan Poe+ – ''Tamerlane'' (1827), ''Al Aaraaf+'' (1829), and ''Israfel'' (1831)
* Victor Hugo+ – ''Les Orientales+'' (1829)
* Gustave Flaubert+ – ''Salammbô+'' (1862)
* Eça de Queiroz+ – ''The Relic+'' (''A Relíquia'') (1887) and ''The Mandarin'' (''O Mandarim'') (1889)
* Anatole France+ – ''Thaïs+'' (1890)
* Edward FitzGerald+ – "translation" or adaptation of the Persian ''Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam+'' (1859)
* Pierre Loti+ (1850–1923) – highly popular French writer, mostly on his Oriental travels and novels set as far away as Japan and Tahiti+
* Richard Francis Burton+ – translation of ''The Book of One Thousand and One Nights+'' (1885–1888)
* Gaston Leroux+ – ''Phantom of the Opera+'' (1911)
* Leo Tolstoy+ – ''Hadji Murat+'' (1912)
* Victor Segalen+ – ''René Leys+'' (1922)
* Herman Hesse+ – ''Siddhartha+'' (1922)
* André Malraux+ – ''Man's Fate+'' (1934) (''La Condition humaine'', 1933)
* Marguerite Yourcenar+'s ''Nouvelles Orientales'' (1938)

* Antonio Lucio Vivaldi+ – ''Juditha triumphans+'' (1716)
* Georg Friedrich Händel+ – ''Tamerlano+'' (1724) and ''Serse+'' (1738)
* Jean-Georges Noverre+ - ''Les Fêtes Chinoises +'' (1754)
* Jean-Philippe Rameau+ – ''Les Indes Galantes+'' (1735–1736)
* Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart+ – ''Die Entführung aus dem Serail+'' (1782)
* Gioachino Rossini+ – ''Semiramide+'' (1823)
* Giuseppe Verdi+ – ''Nabucco+'' (1842)
* Jacques Offenbach+ – ''Ba-ta-clan+'' (1855)
* Georges Bizet+ – ''Les Pêcheurs de Perles+'' (1863)
* Giuseppe Verdi+ – ''Aida+'' (1871)
* Emmanuel Chabrier+ – ''Fisch-Ton-Kan+'' (1875)
* César Cui+ – ''The Mandarin's Son+'' (1878)
* Gilbert and Sullivan+ – ''The Mikado+'' (1885)
* Alexander Borodin+ – ''Prince Igor+'' (1890)
* Sidney Jones+ – ''The Geisha+'' (1896)
* Sidney Jones+ – ''San Toy+'' (1899)
* Pietro Mascagni+ – ''Iris+'' (1899)
* Howard Talbot+ – ''A Chinese Honeymoon+'' (1896)
* Giacomo Puccini+ – ''Madama Butterfly+'' (1904)
* Richard Strauss+ – ''Salome+'', opera in one act based on Wilde's play (1905)
* Giacomo Puccini+ – ''Turandot+'' (1926)
* Franz Lehár+ – ''The Land of Smiles+'' (1929)
* Sigmund Romberg+Oscar Hammerstein II+ and Otto Harbach+ – ''The Desert Song+'' (1926) and film (1929)
* Richard Strauss+ – ''Die ägyptische Helena+'', opera with libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal+ (1929)

* Mily Balakirev+ – ''Tamara''
* Alexander Borodin+ – ''In the Steppes of Central Asia+''; "Polovetsian Dances+" from ''Prince Igor+''
* Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov+ – ''Caucasian Sketches+''
* Modest Mussorgsky+ – "Dance of the Persian Slaves" from ''Khovanshchina+''
* Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov+ – ''Antar+''; ''Scheherezade+''
* Gustav Mahler+ – ''Das Lied von der Erde+''

* Mily Balakirev+ – ''Islamey+''
* Ludwig van Beethoven+Turkish March+ from ''The Ruins of Athens+'', opus 113 (1811)
* Johann Joseph Fux+ – partita ''Turcaria'', inspired by the 1683 Siege of Vienna+ by the Turks+.
* Alexander Glazunov+ – 5 Novelettes for String Quartet, Op 15
* Albert Ketèlbey+ – ''In a Persian Market'' (1920), ''In a Chinese Temple Garden'' (1925), and ''In the Mystic Land of Egypt'' (1931)
* Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart+ – ''Rondo alla turca+'' from ''Piano Sonata No.11+ ''(K.331)
* Sergei Rachmaninoff+ – ''Oriental Sketch'' (1917)

* Tobias Bamberg+'s magic+ stage act as "Okito" (Germany, 1893 – United States, 1908)
* Oscar Wilde+'s ''Salomé+'' (1893, first performed in Paris 1896)
* Alexander's+ mentalism+ stage act (United States, c. 1890s–1910s)
* William Ellsworth Robinson+'s, magic+ stage act as "Chung Ling Soo" (United States, 1900–1918)

* Roger Fenton+
* Francis Frith+

* ''Oriental Stories+'': (1930–32), retitled ''The Magic Carpet Magazine'' (1933–34).

* ''Intolerance+'' (1916)
* ''Broken Blossoms+'' (1919)
* ''The Sheik+'' (1921)
* ''The Lives of a Bengal Lancer+'' (1935)
* ''The Thief of Bagdad+'' (1940)
* ''My Geisha+'' (1962)
* ''Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom+'' (1984)

* ''The Adventures of Tintin+'' (1929–1983)
* ''Carnets d'Orient'' by Jacques Ferrandez.
* ''The Upside Down Circle+'' by Don Gilbert (1990).
* ''Dragon and Tiger+'' (2008)
* ''Habibi+'' (2011)


An exchange of Western and Eastern ideas about spirituality developed as the West traded with and established colonies in Asia. The first Western translation of a Sanskrit text appeared in 1785, marking the growing interest in Indian culture and languages. Translations of the ''Upanishads'', which Arthur Schopenhauer+ called "the consolation of my life", first appeared in 1801 and 1802. Early translations also appeared in other European languages.

19th-century transcendentalism+ was influenced by Asian spirituality, prompting Ralph Waldo Emerson+ (1803–1882) to pioneer the idea of spirituality as a distinct field.

A major force in the mutual influence of Eastern and Western spirituality and religiosity was the Theosophical Society+, a group searching for ancient wisdom from the East and spreading Eastern religious ideas in the West. One of its salient features was the belief in "Masters of Wisdom+", "beings, human or once human, who have transcended the normal frontiers of knowledge, and who make their wisdom available to others". The Theosophical Society also spread Western ideas in the East, contributing to its modernisation and a growing nationalism in the Asian colonies.

The Theosophical Society had a major influence on Buddhist modernism+ and Hindu reform movements+. Between 1878 and 1882, the Society and the Arya Samaj+ were united as the Theosophical Society of the Arya Samaj+. Helena Blavatsky+, along with H. S. Olcott+ and Anagarika Dharmapala+, was instrumental in the Western transmission and revival of Theravada Buddhism+.

Another major influence was Vivekananda+, who popularised his modernised interpretation of Advaita Vedanta during the later 19th and early 20th century in both India and the West, emphasising ''anubhava'' ("personal experience") over scriptural authority.

Much of Said's criticism of Western Orientalism is based on particularizing trends also present in Asian works by Indian, Chinese, and Japanese writers and artists, in their views of Western culture and tradition. The term ''Occidentalism+'' has sometimes been used to refer to negative or stereotypical views of the Western world found in Eastern societies.

In the late 20th century, many Western cultural themes and images began appearing in Asian art and culture, especially in Japan+. English+ words and phrases are prominent in Japanese advertising and popular culture, and many Japanese anime+ are written around characters, settings, themes, and mythological+ figures derived from various Western cultural traditions.

A particularly significant development is the manner in which Orientalism has taken shape in non-Western cinema, as for instance in Hindi cinema.


*Antisemitism+
*Arabist+
*Asian studies+
*Black orientalism+
*Chinoiserie+
*Circassian beauties+
*Exoticism+
*Filipinophile+
*Hebraist+
*Indomania+
*Islamophobia+
*Islamic studies+
*Japanophile+
*Japonism+
*Jewish studies+
*Jewish thought+
*Moorish Revival architecture+
*Oriental studies+
*Persophilia+
*Sinophile+
*Turquerie+
Div col end:





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* Rosenthal, Donald A. ''Orientalism: The Near East in French Painting, 1800–1880''. Rochester, N.Y.: Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, 1982.
* Stevens, Mary Anne, ed. ''The Orientalists: Delacroix to Matisse: European Painters in North Africa and the Near East''. Exhibition catalogue. London: Royal Academy+ of Arts, 1984

* Ankerl, Guy. ''Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western''. Geneva: INU Press, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
* Halliday, Fred. "'Orientalism' and Its Critics", ''British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies'', Vol. 20, No. 2. (1993), pp. 145–163.
* Irwin, Robert. ''For lust of knowing: The Orientalists and their enemies''. London: Penguin/Allen Lane, 2006 (ISBN 0-7139-9415-0)
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* Klein, Christina. ''Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945–1961''. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-520-22469-8; paperback, ISBN 0-520-23230-5).
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Commons category:

Wiktionary:
*
*
*
* ''Dictionary of the History of Ideas'', etext, University of Virginia
*, Joseph Abbad, ''Desiring Arabs'', Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007, from Al-Bab.com, on Reflections of a Renegade blog site
* , from his book, ''Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America'', Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2001, pp. 27–43.
* , Camp Catatonia blog
*, All Art
*, London ''Times Online''
*, Artistic Association Alexander Roubtzoff
*, CitizenTrack
*
* Gallery Of Orientalist Artists

+
Category:Art history+