Biking, golf, hiking, horseback riding, swimming, and tennis in the nearby desert and mountain areas are major forms of recreation in Palm Springs. The city is also famous for its mid-century modern+ architecture and design elements.
Archaeological research has shown that the Cahuilla people+ have lived in the area for the past 350–500 years. The Cahuilla name for the area was "Se-Khi" (boiling water). When the Agua Caliente Reservation+ was established by the United States government in 1896, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections+ (640 acres) of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern+. The alternating non-reservation sections were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad+ as an incentive to bring rail lines through the open desert+.
One possible origin of ''palm'' in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as ''La Palma de la Mano de Dios'' or "The Palm of God's hand". The earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States Topographical Engineers+ who used the term in 1853 maps. According to William Bright+, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it usually refers to the native California fan palm, ''Washingtonia filifera+'', which is abundant in the Palm Springs area. Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs".
The first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach+ station on the Bradshaw Trail+ in 1862. In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions; they in turn brought in W. R. Porter to help market their property through the "Palm City Land and Water Company".
McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River+ to fruit orchards on his property. The crops and irrigation systems suffered flooding in 1893 from record rainfall, and then an 11-year drought (1894–1905) caused further damage.
The city became a fashionable resort in the 1900s when health tourists arrived with conditions that required dry heat. Because of the heat, however, the population dropped markedly in the summer months. In 1906 naturalist and travel writer George Wharton James+' two volume ''The Wonders of the Colorado Desert+'' described Palm Springs as having "great charms and attractiveness"
Nellie N. Coffman and her physician husband Harry established The Desert Inn as a hotel and sanitarium in 1909.
James' ''Wonders of the Colorado Desert'' was followed in 1920 by J. Smeaton Chase+'s ''Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the Sun'', which also served to promote the area.
Palm Springs became popular with movie star+s in the 1930s and estate building expanded into the Movie Colony neighborhoods, Tahquitz River Estates, and Las Palmas neighborhoods. Actors Charles Farrell+ and Ralph Bellamy+ opened the Racquet Club+ in 1934 and the Chi Chi nightclub opening in 1936. Besides the gambling available at the Dunes Club, other casinos included The 139 Club and The Cove Club outside of the city. Southern California's first self-contained shopping center was established in Palm Springs as the Plaza Shopping Center in 1936.
|+Pre-World War II Coachella Valley Resorts and Hotels
! Name !! City !! Year Established !! Year Closed/Demolished !! Notes and referencesExcept where noted, most data is from:
| Agua Caliente Bathhouse | Palm Springs | 1880s | Present day | Commercial use since the 1880s; bathhouse constructed 1916; site is now the Agua Caliente Spa Resort Casino, built in 1963
| Southern Pacific Indio depot | Indio | 1880s | Burned down in 1966 | Contained a "rough resort/hotel"
| Hotel and tent houses | Palm Springs | 1910s | Unknown | Operated by David Manley Blanchard (tent houses in late 1800s)
| Hotel Indio | Indio | 1925 | 2004 (Burned) | Opened by E.R. Cooper; had 60 rooms (40 with baths)
| Pepper Tree Inn | Palm Springs | 1924 | — | Also described as the Dr. Reid's Sanitarium/Matthews-Andrea-Pepper Tree Inn
| Ramona Hotel | Palm Springs | 1910s | — | Renamed in 1921 as the Palm Springs Hotel by the Foldesy family, although not related to original Palm Spring Hotel
| Sunshine Court | Palm Springs | 1920s | 2000s (Razed) | Built by Dr. J. J. Crocker and used by golfers at the O'Donnell Golf Club
| Hotel La Palma | Palm Springs | 1910s| — | Depicted on Palm Canyon Drive in late teens/early 1920s;
| The Orchid Tree Inn | Palm Springs | 1934 | Present day | 45 rooms
| Estrella Resort and Spa | Palm Springs | 1933 | Present day | Now the Viceroy Palm Springs; 74 rooms
| Ingleside Inn | Palm Springs | 1935 | Present day | Original estate built in the 1920s; operated as the Ingleside Inn by Ruth Hardy; now operated by Mel Haber+
| Palm Springs Tennis Club | Palm Springs | 1937 | Present day | Area is now the Tennis Club Condominiums
| La Bella Villas | Palm Springs | 1939 |Present day | Six Southwest-style villas
| Desert Hot Springs Mineral Bathhouse | Desert Hot Springs | 1941 | Demolished | Developed by L.W. and Lillian T. Coffee; burned in 1947 and rebuilt
| The Oasis Hotel | Palm Springs | 1925 | Present day | Built on grounds owned by the late John Gutherie McCallum; concrete structure designed by Lloyd Wright+
| Hotel del Tahquitz | Palm Springs | 1929 | 1958 | Built by movie star Fritzi Ridgeway+; had 100 rooms
| Deep Well Guest Ranch | Palm Springs | 1929 | 1948 | Operated by Frank and Melba Bennet; converted to housing development
| Smoke Tree Ranch | Palm Springs | 1925 | — |
| Monte Vista Apartments | Palm Springs | 1921 | 2005 | Operated as a hotel by John and Freda Miller, and then their sons, Frank and John.
| El Mirador Hotel | Palm Springs | 1927 | (Converted) | Had 200+ rooms; went bankrupt in 1930, bought by new owners; taken over as US Army Torney General Hospital in 1942; reopened as hotel in 1952; became the Desert Regional Medical Center in 1972 | The Desert Inn |Palm Springs | 1909 | 1967 | Built by Nellie Coffman; originally a tent-house resort and sanitarium, developed into 35 buildings and bungalows; owned by actress Marion Davies+ from 1955 to 1960; original building demolished in 1960; officially closed in 1953. Child actress Shirley Temple+ was a frequent and publicized guest.
| Colonial House+ | Palm Springs | 1936 | Present day | With 56 rooms, was built by Purple Gang+ member Al Wertheimer with a reputed speakeasy and brothel; once known as the Howard Manor; now the Colony Palms Hotel
| Welwood Murray's Palm Springs Hotel | Palm Springs | 1886| 1909 | Demolished in 1954
When the United States entered World War II, Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley were important in the war effort. The original airfield near Palm Springs became a staging area for the Air Corps Ferrying Command+'s 21st Ferrying Group+ in November 1941 and a new airfield was built ½ mile from the old site. The new airfield, designated Palm Springs Army Airfield, was completed in early 1942. Personnel from the Air Transport Command 560th Army Air Forces Base Unit stayed at the La Paz Guest Ranch and training was conducted at the airfield by the 72nd and 73rd Ferrying Squadrons. Later training was provided by the IV Fighter Command+ 459th Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron.
Eight months before Pearl Harbor Day, the El Mirador Hotel was fully booked and adding new facilities. After the war started, the U.S. government bought the hotel from owner Warren Phinney for $750,000 and converted it into the Torney General Hospital, with Italian prisoners of war serving as kitchen help and orderlies in 1944 and 1945. Through the war it was staffed with 1,500 personnel and treated some 19,000 patients.
Architectural modernists flourished with commissions from the stars, using the city to explore architectural innovations, new artistic venues, and an exotic back-to-the-land experiences. Inventive architects designed unique vacation houses, such as steel houses with prefabricated panels and folding roofs, a glass-and-steel house in a boulder-strewn landscape, and a carousel house that turned to avoid the sun's glare.Wills, Eric (May/June 2008). "Palm Springs Eternal", ''Preservation'', Vol. 60, Issue 3, pp. 38–45
In 1946 Richard Neutra+ designed the Edgar and Liliane Kaufmann House+. A modernist classic, this mostly glass residence incorporated the latest technological advances in building materials, using natural lighting and floating planes and flowing space for proportion and detail. In recent years an energetic preservation program has protected and enhanced many classic buildings.
Culver (2010) argues that Palm Springs architecture became the model for mass-produced suburban housing, especially in the Southwest. This "Desert Modern" style was a high-end architectural style featuring open-design plans, wall-to-wall carpeting, air-conditioning, swimming pools, and very large windows. As Culver concludes, "While environmentalists might condemn desert modern, the masses would not. Here, it seemed, were houses that fully merged inside and outside, providing spaces for that essential component of Californian—and indeed middle-class American—life: leisure. While not everyone could have a Neutra masterpiece, many families could adopt aspects of Palm Springs modern."
Hollywood values permeated the resort as it combined celebrity, health, new wealth, and sex. As Culver (2010) explains: "The bohemian sexual and marital mores already apparent in Hollywood intersected with the resort atmosphere of Palm Springs, and this new, more open sexuality would gradually appear elsewhere in national tourist culture." During this period, the city government, stimulated by real estate developers systematically removed and excluded poor people and Indians.
Palm Springs was pictured by the French photographer Robert Doisneau+ in November 1960 as part of an assignment for ''Fortune''+ on the construction of golf courses+ in this particularly dry and hot area of the Colorado desert. Doisneau submitted around 300 slides following his ten-day stay depicting the lifestyle of wealthy retirees and Hollywood+ stars in the 1960s. At the time, Palm Springs counted just 19 courses, which had grown to 125 by 2010.
Similar to the pre-war era, Palm Springs remained popular with the rich and famous of Hollywood, as well as retirees and Canadian tourists. Between 1947 and 1965, the Alexander Construction Company+ built some 2,200 houses in Palm Springs effectively doubling its housing capacity.
As the 1970s drew to a close, increasing numbers of retirees moved to the Coachella Valley. As a result, Palm Springs began to evolve from a virtual ghost town in the summer to a year-round community. Businesses and hotels that used to close for the months of July and August instead remained open all summer. As commerce grew, so too did the number of families with children.
The recession of 1973–1975+ affected Palm Springs as many of the wealthy residents had to cut back on their spending. Later in the 1970s numerous Chicago mobsters invested $50 million in the Palm Springs area, buying houses, land, and businesses. While Palm Springs faced competition from the desert cities to the east in the later 1980s, it has continued to prosper into the 21st century.
Since the early 1950s the city had been a popular spring break+ resort. Glamorized as a destination in the 1963 movie ''Palm Springs Weekend+'', the number of visitors grew and at times the gatherings had problems. In 1969 an estimated 15,000 people had gathered for a concert at the Palm Springs Angel Stadium and 300 were arrested for drunkenness or disturbing the peace. In the 1980s 10,000+ college students would visit the city and form crowds and parties – and another rampage occurred in 1986 when Palm Springs Police in riot gear had to put down the rowdy crowd. In 1990, due to complaints by residents, mayor Sonny Bono+ and the city council closed the city's Palm Canyon Drive to Spring Breakers and the downtown businesses lost money normally filled by the tourists.
Tourism is a major factor in the city's economy with 1.6 million visitors in 2011. The city has over 130 hotels and resorts, numerous bed and breakfast+s and over 100 restaurants and dining spots.
Following the recession of the late 2000s/early 2010s, Palm Springs is revitalizing its Downtown or "the Village". Rebuilding started with the demolition of the Bank of America building in January 2012, with the Desert Fashion Plaza scheduled for demolition later in 2012.
The movement behind Mid-Century modern+ architecture (1950s/60s era) in Palm Springs is backed by architecture enthusiasts, artistic designers and local historians to preserve many of Central Palm Springs' buildings and houses of famous celebrities, businessmen and politicians.
Palm Springs has a hot desert climate+, with over 300 days of sunshine and around url = http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/daily/USCA0828?climoMonth=2Monthly Averages for Palm Springs, CA – Temperature and Precipitation2010-05-29The Weather Channel
The locale features a variety of native Low Desert+ flora and fauna. A notable tree occurring in the wild and under cultivation is the California Fan Palm, ''Washingtonia filifera+''.
The City of Palm Springs has developed a program to identify distinctive neighborhoods in the community. Of the 33 neighborhoods, 7 have historical and cultural significance.
The Movie Colony is just east of Palm Canyon Drive. The Movie Colony East neighborhood extends further east from the Ruth Hardy Park. These areas started growing in the 1930s as Hollywood movie stars built their smaller getaways from their Los Angeles area estates. Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, Estée Lauder, and Bing Crosby built homes in these neighborhoods.
In the 1960s, Robert Fey built 70 homes designed by Donald Wexler and Ric Harrison in the El Rancho Vista Estates. Noted residents included Jack LaLanne and comic Andy Dick.
Historic homes in the Warm Sands area date from the 1920s and many were built from adobe. It also includes small resorts and the Ramon Mobile Home Park. Noted residents have included screenwriter Walter Koch, artist Paul Grimm, activist Cleve Jones and actor Wesley Eure.
The Mesa started off as a gated community developed in the 1920s near the Indian Canyons. Noted residents have included King Gillette, Zane Grey, Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, Suzanne Somers, Herman Wouk, Henry Fernandez, Barry Manilow and Trina Turk. Distinctive homes include Wexler's "butterfly houses" and the "Streamline Moderne Ship of the Desert".
Some of the homes in this neighborhood date from the 1930s. The area was owned by Pearl McCallum McManus and she started building homes in the neighborhood after World War II ended. Dr. William Scholl (Dr. Scholl's foot products) owned a 10-acre estate here. Today the neighborhood is the largest neighborhood organization with 600 homes and businesses within its boundaries.
During World War II, the original Sunmor Estates area was the western portion the Palm Springs Army Airfield. Homes here were developed by Robert Higgins and the Alexander Construction Company. Actor and former mayor Frank Bogert bought his home for $16,000 and lived there for more than 50 years.
Impoverished artist Carl Eytel+ first set up his cabin on what would become the Tennis Club in 1937. Another artist in the neighborhood, who built his Moroccan-style "Dar Marrac" estate in 1924, was Gordon Coutts. Other estates include Samuel Untermyer+'s Mediterranean style villa (now The Willows Historic Palm Springs Inn), the Casa Cody Inn, built by Harriet and Harold William Cody (cousin of Buffalo Bill Cody+) and the Ingleside Inn, built in the 1920s by the Humphrey Birge family. The neighborhood now has about 400 homes, condos, apartments, inns and restaurants.
To the west of Palm Canyon Drive are the Vista Las Palmas, Old Las Palmas, and Little Tuscany neighborhoods. These areas also feature distinctive homes and celebrity estates.
Historic Racquet Club Estates, located north of Vista Chino, is home to over five hundred mid-century modern homes from the Alexander Construction Company. "Meiselman" homes, and the famed Wexler steel homes (having Class One historic designation) are also prominent in the area. Racquet Club Estates was Palm Springs' first middle income neighborhood.
Deepwell Estates, the eastern portion of the square mile defined by South/East Palm Canyon, Mesquite, and Sunrise, contains around 370 homes, including notable homes architecturally and of celebrity figures. Among the celebrities who lived in the neighborhood are Jerry Lewis, Loretta Young, Liberace, and William Holden.
US Census population
The Census reported that 44,013 people (98.8% of the population) lived in households, 343 (0.8%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 196 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 22,746 households, out of which 3,337 (14.7%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,812 (25.6%) were opposite-sex married couples+ living together, 1,985 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 868 (3.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,031 (4.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships+, and 2,307 (10.1%) same-sex married couples or partnerships+. 10,006 households (44.0%) were made up of individuals and 4,295 (18.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93. There were 8,665 families+ (38.1% of all households); the average family size was 2.82.
The population was spread out with 6,125 people (13.7%) under the age of 18, 2,572 people (5.8%) aged 18 to 24, 8,625 people (19.4%) aged 25 to 44, 15,419 people (34.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,811 people (26.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.6 years. For every 100 females there were 129.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.8 males.
There were 34,794 housing units at an average density of 366.3 per square mile (141.4/km²), of which 13,349 (58.7%) were owner-occupied, and 9,397 (41.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 6.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 15.5%. 24,948 people (56.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,065 people (42.8%) lived in rental housing units.
During 2009ndash: 2013, Palm Springs had a median household income of $45,198, with 18.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
There were 20,516 out of which 16.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples+ living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 53.9% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.1 and the average family size was 2.9.
In the city the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males.
The median income+ for a household in the city was $35,973 and the median income for a family was $45,318. Males had a median income of $33,999 versus $27,461 for females. The per capita income+ for the city was $25,957. About 11.2% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line+, including 28.2% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Palm Springs has one of the highest concentration of same-sex couples of any community in the United States. In the city, 7.2% of households belong to a same-sex couple compared to the national average of 1%. Palm Springs has the fifth-highest percentage of same-sex households in the nation. Former mayor Ron Oden+ estimated that about a third of Palm Springs is gay. Over various times, the city has catered to LGBT+ tourists.
Though celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, many today establish residences in other areas of the Coachella Valley. The city's economy now relies on tourism+, and local government is largely supported by related retail sales taxes and the TOT (transient occupancy tax). It is a city of numerous festivals, conventions, and international events including the Palm Springs International Film Festival.
Numerous hotels, restaurants and attractions cater to tourists, while shoppers can find a variety of high-end boutiques in downtown and uptown Palm Springs. The city is home to 20 clothing-optional resorts catering to gay men.
* The Palm Springs International Film Festival+ and Palm Springs International Festival of Short Films+ ("ShortFest") present movie star-filled, red-carpet affairs in January and June respectively.
* Modernism Week, in February, is an 11-day event featuring mid-century modern architecture through films, lectures, tours and its Modernism Show and Sale. A four-day Modernism Week Preview is held in mid-October.
* The Club Skirts Dinah Shore Weekend+, known as "The Dinah", is a LGBT+ event billed as the "Largest Girl Party in the World" held each March.
* A circuit+White Party+ is held in April, attracting 10,000 visitors.
* The Arthur Lyons Film Noir+ Festival, co-sponsored by the Palm Springs Cultural Center, is held in May with screenings at the Camelot Theater.
* Palm Springs Desert Resorts Restaurant Week is held every June, featuring 10 days of dining at over 100 restaurants in the Coachella Valley.
* The Palm Springs Black History Committee celebrates Black History Month+ with a parade and town fair in February.
* The Caballeros, a gay men's chorus+ and member of GALA Choruses+, has presented concerts since 1999.
Starting in 2004, the city worked with downtown businesses to develop the weekly Palm Springs VillageFest. The downtown street fair has been a regular Thursday evening event, drawing tourists and locals alike to Palm Canyon Drive to stroll amid the food and craft vendors.
Events related to films and film-craft are sponsored by the Desert Film Society+.
The city council has established a 7-member commission to promote art in the city. The commission has sponsored several notable public art projects in the city, including:
* (2010) by Konstantin Demopoulos. Ramon Road and Gene Autry Trail
* (2009) by Christopher Georgesco. Palm Canyon Blvd. and Andreas Road
* (2007) by DeL'Esprie
* (2007) by John Clement. 538 N. Palm Canyon Drive
* (1994) by Doug Hyde, corner of Tahquitz and Indian Canyon Way
* "A Personal History of Palm Springs" by Tony Berlant+diptych mural+, Convention Center lobby
* "The Batter" by Bill Arms, Baseball stadium
* "Standing Woman" by Felipe Castaneda, Palm Canyon in front of the Historical Society
* "Flight" by Damian Priour, entrance to Bird Medical Technologies on Gene Autry Drive
* "Daimaru XII" by Michael Todd. Convention Center; on lease from the Palm Springs Art Museum
* "Lucy Ricardo" by Emmanuil Snitkovsky. Tahquitz Canyon at Palm Canyon
* "Desert Highland Mural Project" by Richard Wyatt. Desert Highland Unity Center, Tramview Road
* "Desert Reflections" by Phill Evans. City Dog Park
* "Nines and Elevens" by James Jared Taylor III. Demuth Park
* "Charlie Farrell" by George Montgomery. Palm Springs International Airport
* "Rainmaker" by David Morris. Fountain, Frances Stevens Park
* "Lawn Chair" by Blue McRight. Pepper Tree Inn
* "Whirlwind" by Gary Slater. Ruth Hardy Park
* "Wave Rhythms" by John Mishler. Sunrise Park
With more golf courses than any other region in California, Coachella Valley is the most popular golf vacation destination in California. Early golf courses in Palm Springs were the O'Donnell Golf Club (built by oil magnate Thomas A. O'Donnell+) and the El Mirador Hotel course, both of which opened in the 1920s. After the Cochran-Odlum (Indio) and Shadow Mountain pitch and putt+ courses were built after World II, the first 18-hole golf course in the area was the Thunderbird Country Club, established 1951 in Rancho Mirage. Thunderbird was designed by golf course architects Lawrence Hughes and Johnny Dawson+ and in 1955+ it hosted the 11th Ryder Cup+ championship.
* City parks include:
** Baristo Park
** DeMuth Park
** Desert Healthcare (Wellness) Park
** James O. Jessie Desert Highland Unity Center
** Dog Park (behind city hall)
** Frances Stevens Park
** Ruth Hardy Park
** Sunrise Park
** Victoria Park
In 1931 the Desert Riders was established. Starting off as a social organization for the cream of Palm Springs society, the group sponsors horseback riding and trail building for equestrians, hikers, and bicyclists. The Desert Riders were also significant in providing combination chuckwagon+ meals and rides through nearby canyons to hotel guests as Palm Springs developed its tourist industry.
Business owners in the village first established a Palm Springs Board of Trade in 1918, followed by a chamber of commerce+; the City itself was established by election in 1938 and converted to a charter city+, with a charter adopted by the voters in 1994.
Presently the city has a council-manager type government+, with a five-person city council that hires a city manager+ and city attorney+. The mayor is directly elected and serves a four-year term. The other four council members also serve four-year terms, with staggered elections. The city is considered a full-service city, in that it staffs and manages its own police and fire departments including parks and recreation programs, public library, sewer system and wastewater treatment plant, international airport, and planning and building services.
The current mayor is Robert Moon+, elected in 2015. Mr. Moon is the City's third openly gay+ mayor in the city's history. Palm Springs' longest-tenured mayor was Frank Bogert+ (1958–66 and 1982–88), but the best-known mayor in the city's history was Sonny Bono+. Bono served from 1988 to 1992 and was eventually elected to the U.S. Congress.
Elementary schools in Palm Springs include:
* Cahuilla Elementary School
* Cielo Vista Charter School
* Katherine Finchy Elementary School (received a U.S. Department of Education+National Blue Ribbon+ award in 2011)
* Vista del Monte Elementary School
Private schools in Palm Springs and nearby communities include Desert Chapel Christian School (K-12+), Desert Adventist Academy (K–8), Sacred Heart School (PS-8), St. Theresa (PreK–8), King's School – formerly known as Palm Valley School (K–8), Desert Christian (K–12), Marywood-Palm Valley School, and The Academy.
Palm Springs is the 144th largest TV market as defined by AC Nielsen+. The Palm Springs DMA+ is unique among TV markets as it is entirely located within only a small portion of Riverside County. Also, while most areas received their first local television stations during the 1950s, Palm Springs did not receive its first TV stations until October 1968 when stations KPLM-TV (now KESQ) and KMIR-TV debuted. Prior to that time, Palm Springs was served by TV stations from the Los Angeles market, which were carried on the local cable system that began operations in the 1950s and which predated the emergence of local broadcast stations by more than a decade.
TV stations serving the Palm Springs and Coachella Valley area include:
* KESQ-TV+ABC+, Channel 42 (Channel 3 on cable)
* KMIR-TV+NBC-TV+, Channel 36 (Channel 13 on cable)
* KPSP-CD+CBS+, Channel 38 (Channel 2 on cable)
* ''The Desert Sun+'' is the local daily newspaper serving Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley region.
* ''Desert Magazine+'' is a monthly lifestyle magazine delivered to 40,000 homes.
* The ''Desert Star Weekly+'' (formerly the ''Desert Valley Star'') is published in Desert Hot Springs.
* The ''Desert Daily Guide'' is a weekly LGBT+ periodical.
* ''Palm Springs Life'' is a monthly magazine; it also has publications on El Paseo Drive+ shopping in Palm Desert, desert area entertainment, homes, health, culture and arts, golf, plus annual issues on weddings and dining out.
* The ''Palm Springs Villager'' was published in the early 20th century until 1959.
* The ''Palm Canyon Times''+ was published from 1993–1996.
* The ''Desert Post Weekly'' – Cathedral City.
* ''The Public Record'' – Palm Desert, is a business and public affairs weekly.
The city's library was started in 1924 and financed by Martha Hitchcock. It expanded in 1940 on land donated to the newly incorporated city by Dr. Welwood Murray and was financed through the efforts of Thomas O'Donnell+. The present site now operates as a branch library, research library for the Palm Springs Historical Society, and tourism office for the Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism.
* Palm Springs in general, history, culture, and city
** title=Times of Change: The Growth of Palm Springs from Village to Suburbia, 1945–1955114|oclc=33434649|publisher=Claremont McKenna College Senior Thesis X190
** ** **
** ** ** ** **
** (Originally published in 1961 as ''A Look into Palm Springs' Past'' by Santa Fe Federal Savings and Loan Assoc. )
** ** ** (print and on-line)
* Cahuilla Indian further reading
** A reprint of Ringwald's Pulitzer Prize–winning articles concerning the scandal of Section 14 of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation.