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'''Roxana''' (; Old Iranian+ ''Raoxshna''; sometimes '''Roxanne''', '''Roxanna''', '''Roxandra''' and '''Roxane''') was a Bactria+n princess and a wife of Alexander the Great+. She was born earlier than the year 343 BC, though the precise date remains uncertain, and died in c. 310 BC.

Roxana was born in ca. 340 BC—she was the daughter of a Bactrian nobleman named Oxyartes+, who served Bessus+, the satrap+ of Bactria+ and Sogdia+. He was thus probably also involved in the murder of the last Achaemenid+ king Darius III+. After Bessus was captured by the Macedonian+ ruler Alexander the Great+, Oxyartes and his family continued to resist the Greeks, and along with other Iranian notables such as the Sogdian warlord Spitamenes+, enforced themselves in a fortress known as the Sogdian Rock+.

However, they were eventually defeated by Alexander, who reportedly fell in love with Roxana on sight; in 327 BC, Alexander married Roxana despite the strong opposition from all his companions and generals. Alexander thereafter made an expedition into India, where he appointed Oxyartes as the governor of Punjab+ and its surroundings. During this period, Roxana was in a safe place in Susa+. When Alexander returned to Susa, he promoted a brother of Roxana as one of the troops of the elite cavalry.

After Alexander's sudden death at Babylon+ in 323 BC, Roxana is believed to have murdered Alexander's other widow, Stateira II+, and possibly Stateira's sister, Drypteis+, and her cousin, Parysatis II+ (Alexander's third wife). Roxana had borne a son to Alexander after his death and would have wanted no competition.

Roxana and her son, named Alexander after his deceased father, were protected by Alexander's mother, Olympias+, in Macedonia.+ Olympias' assassination in 316 BC allowed Cassander+, who imprisoned Roxana and Alexander in the citadel of Amphipolis+ under the supervision of Glaucias+, to seek kingship. Since Alexander IV was the legitimate heir to the Alexandrian empire, Cassander ordered Glaucias that Alexander and Roxana be poisoned c. 310 BC.

* Roxana is one of the main characters in ''The Romance of Alexander and Roxana'' by Marshall Monroe Kirkman+, 1909, reprinted 2010, ISBN 978-1-160-01995-8.
* Roxana appears as one of the characters in ''A Conspiracy of Women'' by Aubrey Menen+, 1965.
* Roxana appears as one of the minor characters in ''The Persian Boy+'' by Mary Renault+, 1972, ISBN 0-394-48191-7. Renault uses the spelling ''Roxane''.
* Roxana appears as one of the characters in ''Funeral Games+'' by Mary Renault+, 1981, ISBN 0-394-52068-8. Renault uses the spelling ''Roxane''.
* Roxana appears as one of the characters in ''Alexander: The Ends of the Earth'' by Valerio Massimo Manfredi+, 2002, ISBN 978-0-7434-3438-6.
* Roxana is the main character in ''Roxana Romance'' by A. J. Cave, 2008, Hardcover ISBN 978-0-9802061-0-4, eBook ISBN 978-0-9802061-1-1.
* Roxana is one of the main characters in ''The Conqueror's Wife'' by Stephanie Thornton, 2015, Softcover ISBN 978-0-451-47200-7
* In the film ''Alexander+'' (2004), Roxana is played by Rosario Dawson+.

* Balkh+
* ''Alexandre et Roxane+,'' opera by Mozart+



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Commons category:
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* by Jona Lendering+
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* from Charles Smith's ''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology'' (1867)

Authority control:

Roxana+ Roxana (Ancient Greek: Ῥωξάνη; Old Iranian Raoxshna; sometimes Roxanne, Roxanna, Roxandra and Roxane) was a Bactrian princess and a wife of Alexander the Great.
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 Roxana Han+ Roxana Han (born 28 May 1980) is a Romanian handball player. She plays for the Romanian club SCM Craiova.
 Roxana Druse+ Roxalana "Roxana" Druse (née Teftt; born ca. 1847 – hanged February 28, 1887), was the last woman hanged in the state of New York.
Roxana, Kentucky+ Roxana is an unincorporated community located in Letcher County, Kentucky, United States. It lies at the intersection of KY 588 and KY 160 on the North Fork of the Kentucky River near its confluence with Kings Creek.
Roxana, Illinois+ Roxana is a village in Madison County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,542 at the 2010 census.
Roxana Baldetti+ Ingrid Roxana Baldetti Elías (born May 13, 1962) was the first female Vice President of Guatemala from 2012 until her resignation amid a corruption scandal in 2015.
Roxana Barry Robinson+ Roxana Robinson (born November 30, 1946) is an American novelist and biographer whose fiction explores the complexity of familial bonds and fault lines.
Roxana Moslehi+ Roxana Moslehi, Ph.D. is a genetic epidemiologist. Most of her research is dedicated to the study of cancer and cancer precursors.
 Roxana Popa+ Roxana Daniela Popa Nedelcu (born June 2, 1997 in Constanța, Romania) is a Romanian-Spanish artistic gymnast who has represented Spain in all her international competitions.