While the Weimar Republic+ (1919–1933) was the one of the earliest examples of a semi-presidential system, the term was first used in a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger+ to describe the then relatively new French Fifth Republic+, which he dubbed a ''régime semi-présidentiel''.
There are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under premier-presidentialism, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to the assembly majority, where the assembly chooses the prime minister and cabinet and remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. This subtype is used in France, Mali, Sri Lanka, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Portugal, Romania, Poland, Mongolia, Macedonia, Lithuania, Niger, Bulgaria, Madagascar, and Ukraine after 2005.
Under president-parliamentarism, the prime minister and cabinet are dually accountable to the president and the assembly majority, where the president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet but must have the confirmation of the assembly. To remove a prime minister or the cabinet the president can dismiss either or the assembly can remove them via a vote of no confidence. This form of semi-presidentialism is much closer to pure presidentialism. This subtype is used in Namibia, Mozambique, Armenia, Peru, Taiwan, Russia, Georgia, and Ukraine between 1996 and 2005. It was used in Germany during the Weimar Republic.
The powers that are divided between president and prime minister can vary greatly between countries. In France, for example, in case of cohabitation+ when the president and the prime minister come from opposing parties, the president is responsible for foreign policy+ and the prime minister for domestic policy+. In this case, the division of powers between the prime minister+ and the president+ is not explicitly stated in the constitution, but has evolved as a political convention+. In Finland+, by contrast, this particular aspect of the separation of powers was explicitly stated in the constitution+ until 2000: "foreign policy is led by the president in cooperation with the cabinet".
Semi-presidential systems may sometimes experience periods in which the President and the Prime Minister are from differing political parties. This is called "cohabitation+", a term which originated in France when the situation first arose in the 1980s. Cohabitation can create an effective system of checks and balances+ or a period of bitter and tense stonewalling, depending on the attitudes of the two leader+s, the ideologies of their parties, or the demands of their constituencies.
In most cases, cohabitation results from a system in which the two executives are not elected at the same time or for the same term. For example, in 1981, France elected both a Socialist+ president and legislature, which yielded a Socialist premier. But whereas the president's term of office was for seven years, the National Assembly+ only served for five. When, in the 1986 legislative election, the French people elected a right-centre Assembly, Socialist President Mitterrand+ was forced into cohabitation with a rightist premier.
However, in 2000, amendments to the French Constitution reduced the length of the French President's term from seven to five years. This has significantly lowered the chances of cohabitation occurring, as parliamentary and presidential elections may now be conducted within a shorter span of each other.
* Steven D. Roper.
* Maurice Duverger. 1978 .Échec au roi. Paris.
* Maurice Duverger. 1980.’A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential Government’ European Journal of Political Research, (8) 2, pp. 165–87.
* Giovanni Sartori. 1997. Comparative constitutional engineering. Second edition. London: MacMillan Press.
* Horst Bahro, Bernhard H. Bayerlein, and Ernst Veser. Duverger's concept: Semi-presidential government revisited. European Journal of Political Research. Volume 34, Number 2 / October, 1998.
* Matthew Søberg Shugart. . Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego. September 2005.
* Dennis Shoesmith. Timor-Leste: Divided Leadership in a Semi-Presidential System Asian Survey. March/April 2003, Vol. 43, No. 2, Pages 231–252
* J. Kristiadi. . Indonesia Outlook 2007 - Political June 30, 2008 The Jakarta Post
* Frye, T. 1997. A politics of institutional choice: Post-communist presidencies. Comparative Political Studies, 30, 523-552
* Goetz, K.H. 2006. ‘Power at the Centre: the Organization of Democratic Systems,’ in Heywood, P.M. et al.. Developments in European Politics. Palgrave Macmillan
* Arend Lijphard. 1992. Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford University Press
* Nousiainen, J. 2001. ‘From Semi-Presidentialism to Parliamentary Government: Political and Constitutional Developments in Finland.’ Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2): 95-109 June
* Rhodes, R.A.W. 1995. "From Prime Ministerial Power to Core Executive" in Prime Minister, cabinet and core executive (eds) R.A.W. Rhodes and Patrick Dunleavy St. Martin's Press, pp. 11–37
* Shugart, M.S. and J.Carrey. 1992. Presidents and assemblies: Constitutional design and electoral dynamics. Cambridge University Press.
* Shugart, M.S. 2005. Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns.
* Canas, Vitalino - “The semi-presidential system”, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg Journal of International Law), Band 64 (2004), number 1, p. 95-124.
* Veser, Ernst. .