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German location


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North Rhine-Westphalia
Urban districts of Germany


Tim Kurzbach

'''Solingen''' (IPA-de|ˈzoːlɪŋən

Solingen is called the "City of Blades", since it has long been renowned for the manufacturing of fine swords, knives, scissors and razors made by famous firms such as Dreiturm, DOVO Solingen+, Wüsthof+, J. A. Henckels+, Böker+, Klauberg, Eickhorn-Solingen, and numerous other manufacturers.

In Medieval times, the swordsmith+s of Solingen coined the town's image, which is preserved to this date. In the latter part of the 17th century, a group of swordsmiths from Solingen broke their guild oaths by taking their sword-making secrets with them to Shotley Bridge+, County Durham+ in England.

Solingen lies southwest of Wuppertal+ in the Bergisches Land+. The city has an area of , of which roughly 50% is used for agriculture, horticulture, or forestry. The city's border is long, and the city's dimensions are east to west and north to south. The Wupper river+, a right tributary of the Rhine+, flows through the city for . The city's highest point at 276 metres (906 ft) is in the northern borough of Gräfrath+ at the Light Tower, previously the water tower+, and the lowest point at 53 metres (174 ft) is in the southwest.

The following cities and communities share a border with Solingen, starting in the northeast and going clockwise around the city:

*Wuppertal+ (unitary urban district+)
*Remscheid+ (unitary urban district)
*Wermelskirchen+ (within the Rheinisch-Bergischer district+)
*Leichlingen+ (Rheinisch-Bergischer district)
*Langenfeld+ (within the district of Mettmann+)
*Hilden+ (Mettmann)
*Haan+ (Mettmann)

Solingen currently consists of five borough+s. Each borough has a municipal council of either 13 or 15 representatives (''Bezirksvertreter'') elected every five years by the borough's population. The municipal councils are responsible for many of the boroughs' important administrative affairs.

The five city boroughs:
*Wald (Solingen)

The individuals boroughs are in part composed of separate quarters or residential areas with their own names, although they often lack precise borders. These areas are:

: '''Aufderhöhe:''' Aufderbech, Börkhaus, Gosse, Horn, Holzhof, Josefstal, Landwehr, Löhdorf, Pohligsfeld, Riefnacken, Rupelrath, Siebels, Steinendorf, Ufer, Wiefeldick
: '''Burg+:''' Angerscheid, Höhrath
: '''Gräfrath+:''' Central, Flachsberg, Flockertsholz, Focher Dahl, Fürkeltrath, Heide, Ketzberg, Külf, Nümmen, Piepersberg, Rathland, Schieten, Zum Holz
: '''Höhscheid:''' Balkhausen, Bünkenberg, Dorperhof, Friedrichstal, Fürkelt, Glüder, Grünewald, Haasenmühle, Hästen, Katternberg, Kohlsberg, Meiswinkel, Nacken, Pfaffenberg, Pilghausen, Rölscheid, Rüden, Schaberg, Schlicken, Unnersberg, Weeg, Widdert, Wippe
: '''Merscheid:''' Büschberg, Dahl, Dingshaus, Fürk, Fürker Irlen, Gönrath, Hübben, Hoffnung, Limminghofen, Scheuren, Schmalzgrube
: '''Mitte:''' Entenpfuhl, Eick, Grunenburg, Hasseldelle, Kannenhof, Kohlfurth, Krahenhöhe, Mangenberg, Meigen, Müngsten, Papiermühle, Scheidt, Schlagbaum, Schrodtberg, Stöcken, Stockdum, Theegarten, Vorspel, Windfeln
: '''Ohligs:''' Brabant, Broßhaus, Buschfeld, Caspersbroich, Deusberg, Engelsberger Hof, Hackhausen, Keusenhof, Mankhaus, Maubes, Monhofer Feld, Poschheide, Scharrenberg, Schnittert, Suppenheide, Unterland, Wilzhaus, Verlach
: '''Wald:''' Bavert, Demmeltrath, Eschbach, Eigen, Fuhr, Garzenhaus, Itter, Kotzert, Lochbachtal+, Rolsberg, Vogelsang, Weyer

Solingen was first mentioned in 1067 by a chronicler who called the area "Solonchon". Early variations of the name included "Solengen", "Solungen", and "Soleggen", although the modern name seems to have been in use since the late 14th and early 15th centuries.

Blacksmith smelters, dating back to over 2000 years, have been found around the town adding to Solingen's fame as a Northern Europe blacksmith centre. Swords from Solingen have turned up in places such as the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the British Isles. Northern Europe prized the quality of Solingen's manufactured weaponry, and they were traded across the European continent. Solingen today remains the knife-centre of Germany.

It was a tiny village for centuries, but became a fortified town in the 15th century.

In 1929 Ohligs, located in the Prussia+n Rhine Province+, by rail north of Cologne+ became part of Solingen. Its chief manufactures were cutlery+ and hardware+, and there were iron-foundries and flour mill+s. Other industries are brewing, dyeing, weaving and brick-making.

In World War II+ the Old Town was completely destroyed by an air raid+ of the British air force in 1944; 1,800 people died and over 1,500 people were badly injured. As such, there are few pre-war sights in the centre.

Solingen's population doubled between the years 1880 and 1890 due to the incorporation of the city Dorp into Solingen in 1889, at which time the population reached 36,000. The population again received a large boost on August 1, 1929 through the incorporation of Ohligs, Wald, Höhscheid, and Gräfrath into the city limits. This brought the population above the 100,000 mark, which gave Solingen the distinction of "large city" (''Großstadt''). The number of inhabitants peaked in 1971 with 177,899 residents, and the 2006 population figure was 163,263.

The following chart shows the population figures within Solingen's city limits at the respective points in time. The figures are derived from census+ estimates or numbers provided by statistical offices or city agencies, with the exception of figures preceding 1843, which were gathered using inconsistent recording techniques.


| v |

! Year
! Population

| 1747 | ca. 2,000

| 1804 | ca. 2,871

| 1818 | ca. 4,000

| 3 December 1846 | 6,127

| 3 December 1861 | 10,100

| 3 December 1864 | 11,800

| 3 December 1867 | 13,000

| 1 December 1871 | 14,040

| 1 December 1875 | 15,142

| 1 December 1880 | 16,900

| 1 December 1885 | 18,641

| 1 December 1890 | 36,540

| 2 December 1895 | 40,843

| 1 December 1900 | 45,260

| 1 December 1905 | 49,018

| 1 December 1910 | 50,536

| 1 December 1916 | 45,720

| v |

! Year
! Population

| 5 December 1917 | 47,459

| 8 October 1919 | 48,912

| 16 June 1925 | 52,002

| 16 June 1933 | 140,162

| 17 May 1939 | 140,466

| 31 December 1945 | 129,440

| 29 October 1946 | 133,001

| 13 September 1950 | 147,845

| 25 September 1956 | 161,353

| 6 June 1961 | 169,930

| 31 December 1965 | 175,634

| 27 May 1970 | 176,420

| 31 December 1975 | 171,810

| 31 December 1980 | 166,085

| 31 December 1985 | 157,923

| 25 May 1987 | 159,103

| 31 December 1990 | 165,401

| v |

! Year
! Population

| 31 December 1995 | 165,735

| 31 December 2000 | 164,973

| 31 December 2005 | 163,581

| 31 December 2006 | 162,948

| 31 December 2007 | 162,575

| 31 December 2008 | 161,779

| 30 April 2009 | 160,242

| 9 May 2011 | 155,265

| 31 December 2012 | 155,316

30.9% of the population of Solingen has foreign roots (statistics 2012).

|'''Largest groups of foreign residents'''

! Nationality | Population (2013)

| | 6,188

| | 5,421

| | 1,225

| | 1,192

| | 1,085

| | 407


Solingen Hauptbahnhof+ is served by Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn+ line S1+ from Düsseldorf+ and Düsseldorf International Airport+ Station. S-Bahn line S7+ links Solingen (including the station nearest the town centre, Solingen Mitte+, and Solingen-Grünewald+) to Wuppertal+ via Remscheid+, Remscheid-Lennep+ and Wuppertal-Ronsdorf+. This line has been operated by Abellio Deutschland+ starting 15 Dec. 2013. The Rhein-Wupper-Bahn+ (RB 48) runs over the Gruiten–Köln-Deutz line+ to Bonn-Mehlem via Opladen+ and Cologne+. It has been operated by National Express+ starting 13 Dec. 2015.

!'''''Railway stations of Solingen'''''

|'''Lines served'''

| Solingen Hauptbahnhof+

|Dortmund+ – '''Solingen''' – Mannheim+Munich+ (''InterCity Express'')
| Interchange with ''Obus Solingen'' (trolleybus) lines 681, 682.

|Hannover+ – '''Solingen''' – Cologne+ – Mannheim – Basel+ (''InterCity Express'')

|Dortmund – '''Solingen''' – Frankfurt+Vienna+ (''InterCity Express'')

|Hamburg+ – '''Solingen''' – Cologne – Frankfurt (''InterCity'')

|Leipzig+ – Hannover – '''Solingen''' – Cologne

|Krefeld+ – Cologne – '''Solingen''' – Wuppertal – Hagen+Hamm+Münster+Rheine+ (''RegionalExpress'')

|''S-Bahn'' to Wuppertal Hauptbahnhof via Remscheid

|Wuppertal-Oberbarmen – '''Solingen''' – Cologne – Bonn-Mehlem+ (''RegionalBahn'')

| S1+
|''S-Bahn'' to Dortmund+

| S7+
|''S-Bahn'' to Wuppertal via Remscheid+

|Solingen Mitte+
| S7+
| Nearest station to historic centre.
Interchange with trolleybus lines 681, 683, 684, 686.

|Solingen Grünewald+
| S7+
| Interchange with trolleybus line 682.

|Solingen Vogelpark+
| S1

|Solingen Schaberg+
| S7+


Solingen has a Trolleybus+ network, one of only three in Germany remaining besides Eberswalde+ and Esslingen am Neckar+. The network centres on ''Graf-Wilhelm-Platz'' (Count William Square).

The first trolleybus was brought into service on 19 June 1952. The network was a conversion of the previous tram+ services. Conversion from tramway was completed on 2 December 1959. Extensions to the system were opened in 1981-2 – Schlagbaum to Hasselstraße () and Höhscheid to Brockenberg () respectively – and in 1993 from Aufderhöhe to Mangenberg/Graf-Wilhem-Platz ().

The mid-1990s saw plans to replace the trolleybuses with diesel buses, but this was never pursued; trolleybuses being preferred over diesel+ vehicles because of superior acceleration and better suitability for the hilly terrain.

, by far the network's longest – also connects to the Wuppertal Schwebebahn+ at Vohwinkel+, the northern end of the route and the western terminus of the Schwebebahn. The southern extent of 683 is the picturesque town of Burg an der Wupper+, which contains Schloss Burg+ (Burg Castle). Burg is also home to the world's only trolleybus turntable+, owing to lack of space to provide a full turning circle. This precludes the use of articulated vehicle+s like on the rest of the network. Until November 2009 this turntable was in regular use for line 683. Since November 2009 line 683 has been extended to Burger Bahnhof. On the new section, the buses use their diesel engine instead of electricity, as no overhead wires were constructed here.

the fleet stands at 49 vehicles: 15 articulated Berkhof+ buses (2001/2), 20 articulated Van Hool+ buses (2002/3), and 14 three-axle+ MAN+ buses (1986-7). The latter are due for replacement during 2008. The power supply is 600 v+ dc+.

The nearest Airports are Düsseldorf International Airport and Cologne/Bonn Airport. Both International Airports can be reached by train from Solingen-Hauptbahnhof (change trains at Köln-Messe/Deutz Station for the S-Bahn 13 to Cologne/Bonn Airport).
Other easily reached airports are the airports of Frankfurt am Main (ICE train stop), Dortmund (railway station "Holzwickede" on the RE7 trainline) and the low cost airport Weeze (coaches from Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof).

Solingen has belonged from its beginnings to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne+ (''Erzbistum Köln''), and more specifically to the Archdeacon+ry of the Probst+ (''provost'') of St. Kunibert+, the deanery+ of Deutz. Although the Protestant Reformation+ gradually made gains in the city, which was under the control of the Counts of Berg+, the population by and large remained Catholic for a while. The Catholic community was newly endowed by the local lord in 1658 and in 1701 received a new church building. In 1827 Solingen became the seat of its own deanery within the newly defined Archdiocese of Cologne, to which the city's current parishes still belong.

As mentioned, the Reformation only gradually gained a foothold in Solingen. A reformed church+ affiliated with the Bergisch synod+ was established in 1590, and the city's parish church+ became reformed in 1649. Lutherans+ had been present in Solingen since the beginning of the 17th century, and a Lutheran congregation was founded in 1635. In 1672 a formalized religious agreement was reached between the city's religious groups. The Reformation was also introduced in Gräfrath in 1590, where a church council was apparently established in 1629. The Reformed and Lutheran churches were formed into a united church community+ in 1838 following the general merger of Reformed and Lutheran churches+ in Prussia+ in 1817.

The Protestant+ parishes originally belonged to the district synod of Lennep, today part of the city Remscheid+. A new synod was established in Solingen in 1843, and the city acquired its own superintendent+, a form of church administrator. This formed the basis for the present-day Church District of Solingen, a member of the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland+. With the exception of the free churches+, most Protestant churches belong to the Church District of Solingen.

Today approximately 34% of Solingen's population belongs to Protestant churches, and roughly 26% belong to Catholic churches. Other church communities in Solingen include Greek Orthodox+, Evangelical Free+ (including Baptist+ and Brethren+), Methodist+, Seventh-day Adventist+, Pentecostal+, Salvation Army+, and free+ churches. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints+, Jehovah's Witnesses+ and the New Apostolic Church+ also have communities in Solingen.

Most of the Turkish immigrants belong to the Muslim faith and they have several mosques/worship places in Solingen:

* DITIB+ Solingen Wald
* Mesjid Nur
* Islamische Gemeinde Milli Görüs (IGMG+)
* Islamisches Kulturzentrum
* Solingen Camii (Verband der Islamischen Kulturzentren, VIKZ)

Locations of note in the city include:

* ''Schloss Burg+'', the castle of the counts of Berg
* ''Müngsten Bridge+'', a railroad bridge connecting Solingen with the neighbour town of Remscheid+. Standing at 107 m above the ground, it is the highest railroad+ bridge+ of Germany. It was constructed in 1897 and originally named the ''Kaiser-Wilhelm-Brücke'' after Wilhelm I+
* ''Klosterkirche'', former convent church (1690)

* Rhineland Industrial Museum Hendrichs Drop Forge+, an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage+
* ''Deutsches Klingenmuseum'' (German Blade Museum), presenting swords and cutlery of all epochs
* ''Kunstmuseum Solingen'' (Museum of Art)
* ''Museum Plagiarius'', the Plagiarius exhibition shows more than 350 product units - i.e. original products and their brazen plagiarisms - in direct comparison. The registered society conducts an annual competition that awards the anti-prize “Plagiarius” to those manufacturers and distributors that a jury of peers have found guilty of making or selling "the most flagrant" imitations.
* ''Laurel+ and Hardy+ Museum''

* Botanischer Garten Solingen+, a botanical garden+
* ''Bärenloch''
* ''Walder Stadtpark'' in Solingen-Wald
* ''Gustav-Coppel-Park''
* ''Süd-Park''
* ''Brückenpark'' beneath the ''Müngsten Bridge+''

*Heinz Bender Chief White House Pastry Chef during U.S. Presidents Johnson, Nixon, Ford and Carter's administrations
*Heavy Metal band Accept+
* Johann Wilhelm Meigen+ (1764-1845), an insect collector, specialist for double-flyers

*J. C. C. Devaranne+ (1784-1813), helped to lead resistance against Napoleonic occupation in 1813.
* Wilhelm von Voss+ (1784-1818), Prussian Administrative Officer and District Administrator of Solingen
* Karl Mager+ (1810-1858), school educator and school politician
* Karl Adams (mathematician)+ (1811-1849), mathematician and teacher
* Albert Bierstadt+ (1830-1902), landscape painter
*Adolf Kamphausen+, (1829–1909), biblical scholar
* Georg Keßler (1851-1910), Prussian Administrative Officer
* Ernst Otto Beckmann+ (1853-1923), chemist
* Friedrich Haumann+ (1857-1924), municipal politician first Lord Mayor of Solingen
* Ludwig Woltmann+ (1871-1907), anthropologist, zoologist and neo-Kantian
* Artur Möller van den Bruck+ (1876-1925) writer
* Albert Müller (1891-1954), communist and politician
* Paul Voss (1894-1976), designer
* Paul Franken+ (1894-1944), socialist politician, victims of Stalinism
*Karl Allmenröder+, (1896-1917), fighter pilot of the Luftstreitkräfte during WWI.
* Carl Clauberg+ (1898-1957), gynecologist, who, as an SS physician, carried out massive forced sterilizations on concentration camp prisoners

*Hermann Friedrich Graebe+ (1900-1986), manager and engineer, 'Righteous Among the Nations' by Israel
* Josef Dahmen+ (1903-1985), theater and film actor
* Georg Meistermann+ (1911-1990), painter of numerous sacred and profane glass windows
* Jürgen Thorwald+ (1915-2006, pseudonym for: Heinz Bongartz), author of popular scientific representations
* Christel Rupke+ (1919-1998), swimmer
* Walter Scheel+ (1919-2016), politician (FDP+), was the 4th Federal President+ (1974-1979)
* Klaus Lehnertz+ (born 1938), athlete
* Adolf Weil+ (1938-2011), the most successful motocross rider in the Federal Republic of Germany
* Christoph Wolff+ (born 1940), musicologist (Bach+, researcher and director of the Bach Archive, at the Harvard University+
* Pina Bausch+ (1940-2009), dancer, choreographer and director of the dance theater of the same name in Wuppertal+
* Hans-Joachim Freund+ (* 1951), chemist, director at the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
* Michael Schade (born 1952), spokesman of the management of Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH
* Wolfgang Schwerk+ (born 1955), Ultramarathon+ runner
* Michael Lesch (born 1956), actor
* Andreas Schäfer (born 1957), director and author
*Trumpeter and Solingen Youth Orchestra founder Alois Mansfeld
*Ulay (Frank Uwe Laysiepen)+, artist, photographer and performer who used to perform with Marina Abramović+.
* Timotheus Höttges+ (born 1962), manager and board member of Deutsche Telekom
* Richard David Precht+ (born 1964), philosopher, writer and publicist
* (born 1965), German champion in chess
* Veronica Ferres+ (born 1965), actress
* Sebastian Thrun+ (born 1967), former professor at Stanford University, founder of the online university Udacity+
* Jens Weidmann+ (born 1968), President of the Deutsche Bundesbank+
*Mola Adebisi+, (born 1973) German TV-presenter grew up and lives in Solingen.
* Marco Matias (musician)+ (born 1975), German-Portuguese singer
* Fahriye Evcen+ (born 1986), actress
* Kevin Kampl+ (born 1990), Slovenian footballer
* Christoph Kramer+ (born 1991), soccer player

The founders of Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, which later became the automobile company Studebaker+, trace their lineage to bladesmen from the region that migrated to America in 1736.

The Solingen Alligators+ are a baseball and softball club from Solingen. The club was founded in 1991 and the first men's team was promoted to the first division of the Baseball Bundesliga for the 2003 season. It has played there in every season since, winning the league championship in 2006 and 2014. The club claims over 250 members.

The ''Schachgesellschaft Solingen e.V. 1868'' is best known for its chess team, which plays in the Schachbundesliga (Chess Bundesliga+), the top tier of the German chess league system, and is the most successful club in German chess history, having won a record 12 national titles (1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1980, 1980/81, 1986/87, 1987/88, 1996/97 and 2015/16), three national cups (1986, 2006 und 2009) and 2 European cups (1976 and 1990).

In ''handball+'', Solingen's most successful team is ''Bergischer HC+'', playing in the top-tier Handball-Bundesliga+ which they were promoted to for the second time in 2013, reaching 15th place in the 2013–14 campaign+ and therefore staying in the top flight for a second consecutive season. ''BHC''
originates from a 2006 cooperation between the ''SG Solingen'' and rivals ''LTV Wuppertal'' from the nearby city of the same name+. The club advertises itself as a representative of the entire Bergisches Land+ region. The team plays its home games at both Solingen's ''Klingenhalle'' (2,600 seats) and Wuppertal's ''Uni-Halle'' (3,200 seats).

In May 1955, the city of Solingen took over the partnership+ of the German general cargo ship ''Solingen'' of the Hamburg-American Packet Transit Actien-Gesellschaft (Hapag)+.

Solingen is twinned+ with:
* Złotoryja+, Poland+, since 1955
* Gouda+, Netherlands+, since 1957
* Chalon-sur-Saône+, France, since 1960
* Blyth+, United Kingdom+, since 1962
* Jinotega, Jinotega+, Nicaragua+, since 1985
* Ness Ziona+, Israel+, since 1986
* Thiès+, Senegal+, since 1990
* Aue+, Germany, since 1990
* sponsorship: citizens from the former district (Landkreis) Goldberg/Silesia, since 1955


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Solingen+ Solingen (German pronunciation: [ˈzoːlɪŋən]; Limburgish: Solich) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Solingen-Schaberg railway station+ Solingen-Schaberg station is a station on the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway in the Solingen district of Schaberg in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia.
Solingen arson attack of 1993+ The Solingen arson attack of 1993 was one of the most severe instances of xenophobic violence in modern Germany.
 Solingen Alligators+ The Solingen Alligators are a baseball and softball club from Solingen, North Rhine-Westphalia. The club was founded in 1991 and the first men's team was promoted to the first division of the Baseball Bundesliga for the 2003 season.
Solingen Hauptbahnhof+ Solingen Hauptbahnhof is the only railway station in Solingen, Germany, to be served by ICE and IC long distance trains.
Solingen Grünewald station+ Solingen Grünewald station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway.
Solingen Mitte station+ Solingen Mitte station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway.
Solingen Vogelpark station+ Solingen Vogelpark station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Düsseldorf–Solingen railway, which was opened on was opened on 3 January 1894 by the Prussian state railways.
Solingen – Remscheid – Wuppertal II+ Solingen – Remscheid – Wuppertal II is one of the 299 single member constituencies (German: Wahlkreis) used for the German parliament, the Bundestag.
Sulingen+ Sulingen is a town in the district of Diepholz, Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated approximatively 30 km east of Diepholz, and 45 km south of Bremen.