Srivijaya and its kings were instrumental in the spread of Buddhism+ as they established it in places they conquered like Java+, Malaya+, and other lands.Jerry Bentley, ''Old World Encounters: Cross Cultural Contacts and Exchange in Pre-Modern Times'' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 72. People making pilgrimages were encouraged to spend time with the monks in the capital city of Palembang+ on their journey to India+.
A stronghold of Vajrayana+ Buddhism+, Srivijaya attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia. These included the Chinese monk I Ching+, who made several lengthy visits to Sumatra on his way to study at Nalanda University+ in India in 671 and 695, and the 11th century Bengal+i Buddhist scholar Atisha+, who played a major role in the development of Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet+. I Ching also known as Yijing and other monks of his time practiced a pure version of Buddhism although the religion allowed for culture changes to be made. He is also given credit for translating Buddhist text which has the most instructions on the discipline of the religion. I Ching reports that the kingdom was home to more than a thousand Buddhist scholars; it was in Srivijaya that he wrote his memoir of Buddhism during his own lifetime. Travellers to these islands mentioned that gold coinage was in use on the coasts, but not inland. A notable Srivijayan revered Buddhist scholar is Dharmakirti+ that taught Buddhist philosophy in Srivijaya and Nalanda, he was the teacher of Atisha.
In the world of commerce, Srivijaya rapidly rose to be a far-flung empire controlling the two passages between India and China, namely the Sunda Strait+ from Palembang and the Malacca strait+ from Kedah. Arab accounts state that the empire of the maharaja was so vast that in two years the swiftest vessel could not travel round all its islands, which produced camphor, aloes, cloves, sandal-wood, nutmegs, cardamom and cubebs, ivory, gold and tin, making the maharaja as rich as any king in India.Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro, Nugroho Notosusanto+, (1992), ''Sejarah nasional Indonesia: Jaman kuna'', PT Balai Pustaka, ISBN 979-407-408-X
Other than fostering the lucrative trade relations with India and China, Srivijaya also established commerce link with Arabia+. Highly possible, a messenger sent by Maharaja Sri Indravarman to deliver his letter for Caliph+ Umar ibn AbdulAziz+ of Ummayad+ in 718, was returned to Srivijaya with ''Zanji'' (black female slave from Zanj+), the Caliph's present for maharaja. Later the Chinese chronicle mentioned about ''Shih-li-t-'o-pa-mo'' (Sri Indravarman), Maharaja of ''Shih-li-fo-shih'' in 724 had sent the emperor a ''ts'engchi'' (Chinese spelling of Arabic ''Zanji'') as a gift.
The decline of Srivijaya was contributed by foreign piracy and raids that disrupted the trade and security in the region. Attracted to the wealth of Srivijaya, in 1025 Rajendra Chola+, the Chola+ king from Coromandel+ in South India+, launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya+ and conquered Kadaram+ (modern Kedah) from Srivijaya. The Cholas are known to have benefitted from both piracy+ and foreign trade. Sometimes Chola seafaring led to outright plunder and conquest as far as Southeast Asia. An inscription of King Rajendra states that he captured Sangrama-vijayottungga-varman, the King of Kadaram, took a large heap of treasures including the Vidhyadara-torana, the jewelled 'war gate' of Srivijaya adorned with great splendour. The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests of parts of Sumatra and Malay Peninsula for the next 20 years. The expedition of Rajendra Chola I+ had such a great impression to the Malay people of the medieval period that his name was mentioned in the corrupted form as Raja Chulan in the medieval Malay chronicle Sejarah Melaya. This event marked the demise of the Empire and a sharp turn for the control of the trade route. For the next century, Tamil trading companies from southern India dominated the Straits region, although the domination was weaker than the control of the Srivijayan Empire.
Rajendra overseas expedition against Srivijaya was a unique event in India's history and its otherwise peaceful relations with the states of Southeast Asia. The reasons of this naval expedition are still a moot point as the source are silent about its exact causes. Nilakanta Sastri suggests that the attack was probably caused by Srivijayan attempt to throw obstacles in the way of the Chola trade with the East, or more probably, a simple desire on the part of Rajendra to extend his ''digvijaya'' to the countries across the sea so well known to his subject at home, and therefore add luster to his crown. Although Srivijaya mandala still survive and the Chola invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, it gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms, like Kediri+, based on intensive agriculture rather than coastal and long-distance trade. Srivijaya was humbled by this attack but not destroyed, the resilience of Srivijaya mandala still proven by the ascends of other royal members within Srivijaya mandala to step into power. With the time, the regional trading center shifted from the old Srivijayan capital of Palembang, to another trade center on the island of Sumatra, Jambi+, which was the center of Malayu+.
Between 1079 and 1088, Chinese records show that Srivijaya sent ambassadors from Jambi and Palembang. In 1079 in particular, an ambassador from Jambi and Palembang each visited China. Jambi sent two more ambassadors to China in 1082 and 1088. This suggests that the centre of Srivijaya frequently shifted between the two major cities during that period. The Chola expedition as well as changing trade routes weakened Palembang, allowing Jambi to take the leadership of Srivijaya from the 11th century on.
According to a Chinese source in the book of ''Chu-fan-chi'' written around 1225, Chou Ju-kua+ describe that in Southeast Asia+ archipelago there were two most powerful and richest kingdoms; Srivijaya and Java+ (Kediri+). In Java he founds that the people adhere two kinds of religions: Buddhism+ and the religion of Brahmins+ (Hinduism+), while the people of Srivijaya adhere to Buddhism+. The people of Java are brave and short tempered, dare to put a fight. Their favourite pastimes was cockfighting+ and pig fighting. The currency was made from the mixture of copper+, silver+, and tin+.
The book of ''Chu-fan-chi'' mentioned that Java was ruled by a maharaja+, that rules several colonies: Pai-hua-yuan (Pacitan+), Ma-tung (Medang), Ta-pen (Tumapel, now Malang+), Hi-ning (Dieng+), Jung-ya-lu (Hujung Galuh, now Surabaya+), Tung-ki (Jenggi, West Papua+), Ta-kang (Sumba+), Huang-ma-chu (Southwest Papua+), Ma-li (Bali+), Kulun (Gurun, identified as Gorong or Sorong+ in West Papua+ or an island in Nusa Tenggara+), Tan-jung-wu-lo (Tanjungpura+ in Borneo), Ti-wu (Timor+), Pingya-i (Banggai+ in Sulawesi), and Wu-nu-ku (Maluku+).
About Srivijaya, Chou-Ju-Kua reported that Srivijaya had 15 colonies and was still the mightiest and wealthiest state in western part of archipelago. Srivijaya's colony are: Pong-fong (Pahang+), Tong-ya-nong (Terengganu+), Ling-ya-si-kia (Langkasuka+), Kilan-tan (Kelantan+), Fo-lo-an (Dungun+, eastern part of Malay Peninsula, a town within state of Terengganu), Ji-lo-t'ing (Cherating+), Ts'ien-mai (Semawe, Malay Peninsula), Pa-t'a (Sungai Paka+, located in Terengganu+ of Malay Peninsula), Tan-ma-ling (Tambralinga+, Ligor or Nakhon Si Thammarat+, South Thailand+), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, (Krabi+) northern part of Malay peninsula), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang+), Sin-t'o (Sunda+), Lan-wu-li (Lamuri at Aceh+), Kien-pi (Jambi+) and Si-lan (Cambodia+).
According to this source in early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda+). About Sunda+, the book describe it further that the port of Sunda (probably refer to Banten+ or Sunda Kelapa+) is really good and strategic, pepper+ from Sunda is among the best quality. People work on agriculture and their house are build on wooden piles (''rumah panggung''). However the country was infested by robbers and thieves. In sum, this Chinese source from early 13th century suggested that the Indonesian archipelago+ was ruled by two great kingdoms, with the western part under Srivijaya's rule, while eastern part was under Kediri domination.
In 1288, Singhasari+, the successor of Kediri+ in Java, conquered Melayu+ state includes Palembang, Jambi as well as much of Srivijaya during the Pamalayu expedition+.
In the year 1293, Majapahit+ ruled much of Sumatra as the successor of Singhasari. Prince Adityawarman+ was given responsibilities over Sumatera+ in 1347 by Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi+, the third monarch of Majapahit+. The rebellion in 1377 was squashed by Majapahit+ but it left the area of southern Sumatera+ in chaos and desolation.
In the following years, sedimentation on the Musi river estuary cut the kingdom's capital off from direct sea access. The strategic disadvantage crippled the trade in the Kingdom's capital. As the decline continued, Islam+ made its way to the Aceh+ region of Sumatra, spreading through contacts with Arab+ and India+n traders. By the late 13th century, the kingdom of Pasai+ in northern Sumatra converted to Islam. At the same time, Srivijayan lands in Malay Peninsula (now Southern Thailand+) was briefly a tributary state+ of the Khmer empire and later the Sukhothai kingdom+. The last inscription, on which a crown prince, Ananggavarman+, son of Adityawarman+, is mentioned, dates from 1374.
Several attempts to revive Srivijaya were made by the fleeing princes of Srivijaya. In 1324, a prince of Srivijaya origin, Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara Batara Sri Tribuwana (Sang Nila Utama) founded the ancient Kingdom of Singapura+ (Temasek). He maintained control over Temasek for 48 years. Confirmed as ruler over Temasek by an envoy of the Chinese Emperor ca 1366. He was succeeded by his son Paduka Sri Pekerma Wira Diraja (1372–1386) and grandson, Paduka Seri Rana Wira Kerma (1386–1399). In 1401, his great grandson, Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara+ was expelled from Temasek by a Majapahit invasion. He later headed north and founded Sultanate of Malacca+ in 1402. The Sultanate of Malacca+ succeeded Srivijaya Empire as a Malay political entity of the archipelago.
Although Srivijaya left few archaeological remains and was almost forgotten in the collective memory of the Malay people+, the rediscovery of this ancient maritime empire by Coedès back in the 1920s stimulated the notion that it was possible in the past for a widespread political entity to thrive in Southeast Asia.
The most important legacy of Srivijayan empire was probably their language. For centuries, Srivijaya through their expansion, economic power and military prowess was responsible for the widespread of Old Malay+ language throughout the Malay-Indonesian archipelago. It was the working language of traders, used in various ports and marketplaces in the region. The language of Srivijayan was probably had paved the way for the prominence of present day Malay+ and Indonesian language+, to be the official language of Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore and as the unifying language of modern Indonesia.
According to the Malay Annals+, Parameswara+ the founder of Malacca Sultanate+ claimed to be the member of the Palembang Srivijaya lineage. This suggested that in the 15th century the prestige of Srivijaya still remained and was used as the source for political legitimacy in the region.
Modern Indonesia+n nationalists have also invoked Srivijaya along with Majapahit+, as a source of pride in Indonesia's past greatness. Srivijaya has become the focus of national pride and regional identity, especially for the people of Palembang+, South Sumatra+ province, and the Malay people+ as a whole. For the people of Palembang, Srivijaya has also become a source of artistic inspiration for Gending Sriwijaya+ song and traditional dance.
The same situation also happened in southern Thailand+, where Sevichai+ () dance was recreated in accordance with the art and culture of ancient Srivijaya. Today the Srivijayan legacy is also celebrated and identified with Malay minority of Southern Thailand+. In Thailand, the Srivijayan art were associated with Javanese art and architecture, probably demonstrate the Sailendra influences over Java, Sumatra and the Peninsula. The examples of Srivijayan style temples are Phra Borom Mathat at Chaiya+ constructed in Javanese style made of brick and mortar (c. 9th – 10th century), Wat Kaew Pagoda at Chaiya, also of Javanese form and Wat Long Pagoda. The original Wat Mahathat at Nakhon Si Thammarat+ (a Srivijayan city) was subsequently encased by a larger Sri Lanka+ styled building.
In Indonesia, Srivijaya is a street name in many cities and has become synonymous with Palembang and South Sumatra. Srivijaya University+, established in 1960 in Palembang, was named after Srivijaya. Kodam Sriwijaya (a military commando area unit), PT Pupuk Sriwijaya (a fertilizer company), Sriwijaya Post (a Palembang based newspaper), Sriwijaya Air+ (an airline), Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium+, and Sriwijaya F.C.+ (Palembang football club) were also all named to honor this ancient maritime empire. On 11 November 2011 during the opening ceremony of 2011 Southeast Asian Games+ in Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, Palembang, a colossal dance performance titled "Srivijaya the Golden Peninsula" was performed featuring Palembang traditional dances and also an actual size replica of ancient ship to describe the glory of this maritime empire.
History of Thailand:
!|Stone inscription or embassies to China and events
|Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa+
|Kedukan Bukit+ (682), Talang Tuwo+ (684), and Kota Kapur+ inscriptions
Malayu conquest, Central Java conquest
|Embassies 702–716, 724(China+)
Embassies to Caliph Muawiyah I and Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz
|No information for the period 728–775
|prior to 775
|Dharmasetu+ or Vishnu
|Nakhon Si Thammarat+ (Ligor+), Vat Sema Muang
|Ligor+, started to build Borobudur+ in 770,
conquered South Cambodia
|Ligor+, Arabian text (790), continued the construction of Borobudur
|Karangtengah inscription+ (824), 802 lost Cambodia, 825 completion of Borobudur
|Lost Central Java, moved to Srivijaya
Nalanda inscription+ (860)
|No information for the period 835–960
|Embassies 960, 962
Javanese King Dharmawangsa+ attack of Srivijaya, building of temple for Chinese Emperor, Tanjore Inscription+ or Leiden Inscription+ (1044), gift of village by Raja-raja I
|Constructed the Chudamani Vihara+ in Nagapattinam+, India in 1006.
|Chola invasion of Srivijaya+, captured by Rajendra Chola+
Chola Inscription+ on the temple of Rajaraja, Tanjore
Building of Tien Ching temple, Kuang Cho (Kanton) for Chinese Emperor
|Kulothunga Chola I+
|No information for the period 1080–1155
|Rajaraja Chola II+
|Larger Leyden Plates
|Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa+
|Bronze Buddha Chaiya+ 1183
|No information for the period 1183–1275
|Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa+
|Padang Roco inscription+ 1286, Pamalayu expedition+ 1275–1293
* D. G. E. Hall, ''A History of South-east Asia''. London: Macmillan, 1955.
* D. R. SarDesai. ''Southeast Asia: Past and Present''. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.
* Lynda Norene Shaffer. ''Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500''. London: ME Sharpe Armonk, 1996.
* Stuart-Fox, Martin. ''A Short History of China and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade, and Influence''. London: Allen and Unwin, 2003.
Srivijaya+ Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, , ) was a dominant thalassocratic city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Sriwijaya University+ Sriwijaya University (Srivijaya University) is a public university in Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Sriwijaya Kingdom Archaeological Park+ Srivijaya archaeological park (), formerly known as Karanganyar archaeological site, is the ancient remnants of a garden and habitation area near the northern bank of Musi river within Palembang vicinity, South Sumatra, Indonesia.