Capital of Tisza, Gate of Transtisza, City of Waters
1 January 2016
11th in Hungary+
5000 – 5008
'''Szolnok''' () is the county seat of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok+ county in central Hungary+. Its location on the banks of the Tisza+ river, at the heart of the Great Hungarian Plain+, has made it an important cultural and economic crossroads for centuries.
Szolnok is located in the heart of the Great Hungarian Plain+, at the confluence of the Tisza+ and Zagyva+ rivers. It lies about east-southeast from Budapest+. The climate of the area is continental+, with hot summers following relatively mild winters. The region is one of the sunniest in Europe; the average precipitation is about annually.
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification+ subtype for this climate is "Cfb+" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate+).
|Jan record high F=56
|Feb record high F=65
|Mar record high F=77
|Apr record high F=82
|May record high F=90
|Jun record high F=92
|Jul record high F=97
|Aug record high F=97
|Sep record high F=92
|Oct record high F=82
|Nov record high F=66
|Dec record high F=64
|year record high F=97
|Jan high C=2.1
|Feb high C=5.4
|Mar high C=11.3
|Apr high C=16.8
|May high C=22.3
|Jun high C=25.4
|Jul high C=27.7
|Aug high C=27.4
|Sep high C=22.9
|Oct high C=16.6
|Nov high C=8.3
|Dec high C=3.5
|Jan mean C=-0.8
|Feb mean C=1.3
|Mar mean C=5.9
|Apr mean C=11.5
|May mean C=16.9
|Jun mean C=20.5
|Jul mean C=21.8
|Aug mean C=21.3
|Sep mean C=16.6
|Oct mean C=10.9
|Nov mean C=4.7
|Dec mean C=0.9
|Jan low C=-4.1
|Feb low C=-2.6
|Mar low C=0.9
|Apr low C=5.6
|May low C=10.6
|Jun low C=13.6
|Jul low C=15.2
|Aug low C=14.8
|Sep low C=10.9
|Oct low C=5.8
|Nov low C=1.0
|Dec low C=-2.3
|Jan record low F=-12
|Feb record low F=-9
|Mar record low F=3
|Apr record low F=27
|May record low F=32
|Jun record low F=45
|Jul record low F=46
|Aug record low F=43
|Sep record low F=30
|Oct record low F=19
|Nov record low F=5
|Dec record low F=-2
|year record low F=-12
|Jan rain days=7
|Feb rain days=7
|Mar rain days=11
|Apr rain days=12
|May rain days=13
|Jun rain days=13
|Jul rain days=10
|Aug rain days=8
|Sep rain days=8
|Oct rain days=10
|Nov rain days=12
|Dec rain days=11
|year rain days=122
|Jan snow days=8
|Feb snow days=6
|Mar snow days=3
|Nov snow days=2
|Dec snow days=6
|year snow days=25
|Jan precipitation mm=27
|Feb precipitation mm=24
|Mar precipitation mm=26
|Apr precipitation mm=41
|May precipitation mm=60
|Jun precipitation mm=64
|Jul precipitation mm=53
|Aug precipitation mm=49
|Sep precipitation mm=42
|Oct precipitation mm=34
|Nov precipitation mm=39
|Dec precipitation mm=37
|year precipitation mm=495
Szolnok was named for the first steward of the city, Szaunik or Zounok. The town was first officially mentioned under the name Zounok in 1075. In the following centuries, it was recorded as Zounok, Saunic, Zounuc, and Zawnuch. The variety of spellings likely comes from phonetic discrepancies occurring when Hungarian sounds - originally written in runic Old Hungarian script+ - were recorded using the Latin alphabet. Another possibility revolves around speculation that the name Szaunik was not a personal name after all, but rather a title relating to the significant salt trade (salt, ) in the area.
In most other languages, the city's Hungarian name is used without derivation (for example ). The city has its own name in a few languages (for example , ), deriving from these languages' historical relationship to the city.
The area was first settled in the Paleolithic era+. The first known inhabitants lived in temporary tent-like structures made from reeds, or in more permanent dwellings made of hides draped over wooden poles. They were hunters of mammoth, reindeer, deer, and boar. Archeologists have also found stone tools from this era, some made of flint.
Fishing equipment such as hooks and weights from nets, dating from the Neolithic era+, shows the increasing importance of fishing in the peoples' lives. These were usually made from clay, as were ritual statues of gods, bulls, and stylized women. In Szandaszőlős+, a suburb of Szolnok, a permanent Neolithic era settlement was discovered.
By the Mesolithic era+, the inhabitants of the area had settled into permanent villages, where they practiced agriculture and animal husbandry. Reconstructions of these settlements can be seen in Szolnok's Damjanich János Museum. The houses of this era were largely made of wood. They utilized carts for transporting goods and large earthenware granaries for storing grain.
In the Bronze Age+, new peoples arrived in the Carpathian Basin+. In Tószeg+, a neighbor of Szolnok, a large settlement was established, with houses built with thick adobe walls. The villagers kept horses, pigs, and sheep, as well as collecting clams from the river. Certain artifacts have been found, such as bronze tools, swords, and shells, which suggest long-distance trade.
The Romans were not able to establish permanent settlements on the Alföld+ (modern-day eastern Hungary), so in the time before the arrival of the Hungarians in 896, the area was populated by Scythians+, Celt+s, and Sarmatians+. A number of artifacts have been found from the Scythian era in Szolnok and in the area surrounding it. During the building of the Zagyva River+ dikes, remnants of a Scythian settlement were found, including iron pots and other pottery.
The Celts followed the Scythians. Artifacts from the Celtic era include mostly weapons, including iron swords and shields, as well as saddlery and other iron components. Subsequently, the Sarmatians, who originated in Iran+, settled in the surrounding area. The Sarmatian people were in contact with the Roman Empire+, sometimes by war and sometimes by trade. Roman money, weapons, jewelry and pottery are often found; when Szolnok's military airport was enlarged in 1952, over two hundred Gepid and Sarmatian graves were uncovered, which contained rich treasures: gold-plated and decorated fibulas, iron weapons, bone combs, belt buckles, and pots. After the Sarmatians, Germanic-speaking peoples took possession of the area.
In Ó-Szanda, a district of Szolnok suburb Szandaszőlős, archeologists discovered a rich trove of artifacts left by the Gepids+, who lived in the area in the 4th and 5th centuries. The Gepids were familiar with glass-making and wore heavy beads made from colored glass. After the Gepids, the area was populated by Avars+. Like the Hungarian tribes who came later, the Avars were buried with their horses; a number of these graves have been unearthed. The remains discovered from the time of their rule indicates that the Avars first appeared in the middle of the 6th century. The burial grounds found at Rákóczifalva+, some from Szandaszőlős, show that a large permanent settlement once existed there.
Szolnok was first mentioned, under the name Zounok, in a letter from Géza I+ concerning the foundation of the monastery at Garamszentbenedek+ in 1075. It was named for the first steward of the city, Szaunik or Zounok. In the following centuries it was recorded as Zounok, Saunic, Zounuc, and Zawnuch. The variety of spellings likely comes from phonetic discrepancies occurring when Hungarian sounds - originally written in runic Old Hungarian script+ - were recorded using the Latin alphabet.
Under the rule of the Árpád Dynasty+, Szolnok was a market town and the center of Szolnok County. When King István+ ordered a church built in every tenth village, one was built in Szolnok. The 11th century saw great improvements in the city due to the Tisza river ferry, customs house, and county business. There was great trade and commerce via both the Tisza and the overland roads that ran through Szolnok. Despite this, Szolnok remained a market town through the Middle Ages, without expanding to a city. The Szolnok Castle+ was, in these times, only an earthworks fort, although later a wooden wall was added.
During the Mongol invasion of Hungary+ in 1241 the town was destroyed; it was re-populated under King Béla IV+ but even by the end of the 14th century it was still considered a village. King Zsigmond of Luxemburg+, in an effort to develop the town, freed Szolnok from certain taxes in 1422, and from customs in 1429. After this, the town slowly began to grow and prosper again.
Due to Szolnok's geographical centrality, the Szolnok Castle+ played an important role in the border castle system of 16th century Hungary. After the Ottoman armies+ captured Temesvár+ and occupied the Danube+-Tisza+-Mureş+ area, only two forces of any significance stood between them and the rest of Hungary: Szolnok, and Eger+ to the north. Beginning in June 1552, Hungarian, Transylvanian, and Viennese agents all began reporting that the Ottoman army was on the move out of Temesvár towards Szolnok and Eger. The task of capturing the two was given to Ali Pasha of Buda. After the fall of other minor fortifications on the Puszta+, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent+ ordered Pashas Ahmed, Ali, and Mohamed to lead their armies against the castles.
It was in light of this Turkish danger that in 1550-51 Ferdinand I+ ordered the Szolnok earthworks to be improved with a new town wall (partially planned by István Dobó+), the castle to be fortified, and Lőrinc Nyáry put in command. Under his command were 1400 soldiers, mostly Spanish, German, Czech, with a small number of Hungarians. The castle was armed with 24 cannons, 3000 muskets, 800 weights of gunpowder, and was well-stocked with food and supplies.
Further works began in summer of 1552 and progressed rapidly. In order to surround the castle, a new branch of the Zagyva+ river was dug. This new branch is the one that remains today, at the point where the Zagyva flows into the Tisza+ river. The original course of the Zagyva has today been filled in, but a small part of it remains as the lake in front of the Szolnok MÁV Hospital.
On September 2, 1552, Pasha Ahmed Ali besieged the castle with his army of 40,000. Although it was the German mercenaries who first entertained thoughts of escape, it was the Hungarian boatmen who deserted first. On the night of September 3, the Hungarian and Spanish horsemen swam across the Tisza, then the boatmen returned for the foot soldiers. On the night of September 4, the mercenaries deserted, leaving the castle to its fate. After they departed the front gate was left open until morning, leading to the easy overpowering and capture of Lőrinc Nyáry and the fifty remaining brave men.
István Mekcsey+, one of the defenders of the Siege of Eger+, wrote the following to his sister four days before the Turkish advance forces reached Eger: "I can't write more... but to say that every day now we feel we are awaiting a great punishment since the traitors gave up Szolnok." Ahmed and Mohamed left a garrison of 2,000 soldiers in Szolnok while they marched against Eger.
The Ottoman occupation of Szolnok lasted from 1552 to 1685. In 1553, they established the sanjak+ of Szolnok, and in the following years built a mosque, baths, and a minaret; during the course of later battles these were destroyed, mostly deliberately. Of the minaret the base remained, and this was made into a stylized fountain which remains today. In 1562, they constructed the first permanent bridge spanning the Tisza+. The remains of the so-called Szolnok Turkish Bridge () again came to light in August 2003 after a summer of drought. The only Turkish codex+ made in Hungary was copied in Szolnok; it describes the campaigns of Suleiman in Hungary. Pottery and tools from the Turkish era can be seen today in Szolnok's Damjanich János Museum.
In 1685, Szolnok was liberated from the Ottomans by the Habsburg armies under the control of Generals Heister and Mercy; during the liberation both the city and the castle were significantly damaged. Due to Szolnok castle's strategic importance, it was rebuilt by commander Antonio Caraffa+.
In 1697, Imre Thököly+ burned down the castle. The events of the Rákóczi Uprising+ in 1703 and 1706 reached Szolnok and the city was again razed to the ground. In 1706, Ferenc Deák, one of Rákóczi's+ leaders, burned the Szolnok castle so that Imperial forces couldn't use it, so Imperial General Rabutin had the stones all taken away. In 1710, forces loyal to Rákóczi took over the castle, but on October 10, they abandoned it to the advancing army of Imperial General Jacob Joseph Cusani. After the Uprising, the castle finally fell to pieces and the stones were carted away.
In the years after, the city of Szolnok fared little better than the castle; it was hit by disaster after disaster, including a massive storm in 1739 which devastated the city. During the storm a fire broke out which, aided by the storm winds, grew and engulfed the majority of the town. The only buildings which were spared were those which were isolated from the town center.
Szolnok started to prosper again in the second half of the 18th century. Control of the river Tisza+ and steamship traffic increased the town's importance. From 1847 Szolnok was connected to Pest+ by railway+.
Its citizens took part in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848+ in 1848-49. In the Battle of Szolnok+, the Austrians were defeated by the armies of General János Damjanich+.
After the Ausgleich+, the population and importance of Szolnok grew. In 1876, Szolnok became capital of the comitatus again. By 1879, it already had 16,001 residents.
Szolnok saw action in the First World War+ in May 1919 when a long and bitter battle raged along the Tisza between the advancing Romanian army and the Hungarian Red Army. Romanian troops caused terrible damage to the area as the front stagnated here for 77 days. After the defeat of the Red Army in July 1919 in the Tiszántúl+ (the regions east of Szolnok), the Romanians crossed the Tisza and occupied the city. The occupation lasted until February 25, 1920. The railroad bridge, which had been destroyed during the battle, was finally reconstructed in 1923.
In 1930, the city had 38,764 inhabitants. Several higher level educational institutions existed, including boys' and girls' grammar schools, a scientific secondary school, trade schools for boys and girls both, lumber- and metal-works vocational school, and a midwifery training institute.
The interwar period saw a surge in industry, including factories for weights, mirrors, furniture, vinegar spirits, rum, and liquor, ice, cotton wool, bricks, sugar; smelting furnace and metalworks factory; machinery factory and iron foundry; two electrical distribution systems; four lumber mills; and four steam mills.
In the interwar period, most of the damage done to the city had been successfully repaired. During World War II+, Szolnok was bombed twelve times, mostly by American troops, which caused serious damage to the buildings and the population. In the so-called "Frantic" attack (June 2 - September 19, 1944) a wave of 600 fighter planes bombed Debrecen; the right wing also bombed Oradea, Cluj-Napoca, Szeged, and Balmazújváros, and the left wing Szolnok and Miskolc. Szolnok suffered great damaged under these attacks and many lives were lost. The train station of Szolnok was bombed several times, by both British and American fighters.
During 1944, it became the location of a "labor camp" and a concentration point for Hungarian Jews being deported to Mauthausen in Austria. It was critical to the success of the Hungarian Jews roundup and deportion.
By the end of the war, the majority of the population had fled; the Soviet troops found only a couple thousand people when they entered the decimated city.
During the Socialist+ era, Szolnok began to recover within the limits of the Communist command economy and Russian imperialism. Factories were built, and touristic importance grew when a thermal bath was opened.
Szolnok was granted the rank of city with county rights on November 13, 1990.
In 2001, the population of Szolnok consisted of 98% Hungarian+, 1% Gypsy+, and 1% people of other nationalities (mainly German).
Szolnok's population reached its highest level in 1989 with almost 82,000 people. Since then it has been slowly but steadily declining; it is predicted to sink to 70,000 by the year 2020.
|1850 | 10617
|1870 | 15847
|1879 | 16120
|1900 | 24160
|1910 | 24417
|1920 | 31065
|1930 | 37317
|1941 | 39897
|1949 | 34003
|1960 | 45640
|1970 | 63467
|1980 | 75362
|1990 | 78328
|2001 | 77654
|2011 | 72953
|2016 | 72333
|2021! | 68000
|2031! | 63000
* Museum of Hungarian Aviation+
* Damjanich János Museum
* The Synagogue
* Tiszavirág Bridge
The current mayor of Szolnok is Ferenc Szalay+ (Fidesz-KDNP).
The local Municipal Assembly has 18 members divided into this political parties and alliances:
| Unity+ (DK-Együtt-MSZP-Szolidaritás)
| Movement for a Better Hungary+ (Jobbik)
*Szolnoki MÁV FC+, football team
*Szolnoki Légierő SK+, defunct football team
*Szolnoki Olaj KK+, basketball team
*Szolnoki Vízilabda SC+, waterpolo team
* Goulash Festival
* Tiszavirág Festival
* Arpád Račko+ (1930) Slovak sculptor
* Ferenc Anisits+ (1938) engineer, founder of BMW+ Diesel Development Center
* Zoltán Jeney+ (1943) composer
* Csaba Horváth+ (1930–2004) chemical engineer and inventor of HPLC+
* Szabó Gábor+ - Architect
* Judit Nóra Pintér+ philosopher
* Gizella Tary+ (1884–1960) Olympic fencer
* Hedvig Karakas+ (1990) Olympic Judoka
* Maciej Szyszcycki+ (1994-) German Footballer
* Ferenc Molnár+, Hungarian singer
* Gábor Szegő+ mathematician
* Bertalan Farkas+ (1949-) cosmonaut
* Martin Nedić+ (1810–1895) Croatian poet
* Viktor Orbán+ (1963-) prime minister
* Mátyás Dósa+ (1987-) actor
A public transport stop in the Estonian city of Tallinn+ is named after Szolnok
Szolnok is twinned+ with:
* Baia Mare+ ''(Nagybánya)'', Romania; since 1990
* Bielsko-Biala+, Poland;
[ since 1995]
* Eastwood+, England+, United Kingdom; since 2006
* Forlì+, Italy; since 1998
* Jinzhong+, China
* Rakvere+, Estonia
* Riihimäki+, Finland; since 1969
* Reutlingen+, Germany; since 1990
* Sanmenxia+, China
* Shoham+, Israel; since 2001
* Yuza+, Japan; since 2004
* hu icon: En icon: de icon:
* En icon: de icon:
Principal cities of Hungary:
Cities with county rights (Hungary):
|Szolnok+ Szolnok (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈsolnok]) is the county seat of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county in central Hungary. |
|Szolnoki Vízilabda SC+ Szolnoki Vízilabda Sport Club is a professional water polo team based Szolnok, Hungary. Founded in 1921, it plays in OB I, the top division championship in the country, which they won on six occasions. |
|Szolnok railway station+ Szolnok railway station is a station of the Hungarian State Railways (MÁV) in Szolnok, Hungary. |
|Szolnoki Olaj KK+ Szolnoki Olaj Kosárlabda Klub is a professional basketball team based in Szolnok, Hungary. The team also goes by the name of Olaj, which is a well-known nickname in the country. |
| ||Szolnoki Légierő SK+ Szolnoki Légierő Sport Klub was a Hungarian football club from the town of Szolnok, Hungary. |
| ||Szolnoki MÁV FC+ Szolnoki MÁV FC is a Hungarian football club, from the city of Szolnok. In 2010 it gained promotion to the National Championship. |
|Szolnok-Doboka County+ Szolnok-Doboka was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now in northern Romania (northern Transylvania). |
| ||Szolnok Castle+ Szolnok Castle was an important military fort for many centuries due to its prime location at the confluence of the Tisza and Zagyva rivers, in the middle of the Great Hungarian Plain. |
|Szolnok Air Base+ Szolnok Air Base (ICAO: LHSN) is a military air base located near Szolnok, a city in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, Hungary. |
| ||Szolnok County+ Szolnok County was a county in the Kingdom of Hungary between the 11th century and 1426. |