The Metamorphosis +Search for Videos

About|the literary work by Franz Kafka|the biological process|Metamorphosis|other uses|Metamorphosis (disambiguation)
Die Verwandlung

Franz Kafka+
Novella+, absurdist fiction+, Slipstream+
Kurt Wolff+ Verlag, Leipzig+
Die Verwandlung (Franz Kafka)
The Metamorphosis

'''''The Metamorphosis''''' (, also sometimes translated as '''''The Transformation''''') is a novella+ by Franz Kafka+, first published in 1915+. It has been The name Samsa is similar to "Kafka" in its play of vowels and consonants: "Five letters in each word. The S in the word Samsa has the same position as the K in the word Kafka. The A is in the second and fifth positions in both words."

Gregor Samsa appears to be partly based upon Kafka himself. As when Kafka suffered from insomnia+, he feared he was repulsive and a burden to his family, during which time his sister was his caretaker.

Grete is Gregor's younger sister, who becomes his caretaker after his metamorphosis. Initially Grete and Gregor have a close relationship, but this quickly fades. While Grete initially volunteers to feed him and clean his room, she grows increasingly impatient with the burden and begins to leave his room in disarray out of spite. She plays the violin and dreams of going to the conservatory, a dream Gregor had intended to make happen; Gregor had planned on making the announcement on Christmas Eve. To help provide an income for the family after Gregor's transformation, she starts working as a salesgirl.

Mr. Samsa is Gregor's father. After the metamorphosis, he is forced to return to work in order to support the family financially. His attitude towards his son is harsh; he regards the transformed Gregor with disgust and possibly even fear.

Mrs. Samsa is Grete and Gregor's mother. She is initially shocked at Gregor's transformation; however, she wants to enter his room. This proves too much for her, thus giving rise to a conflict between her maternal impulse and sympathy, and her fear and revulsion at Gregor's new form.

X | Mute
X | Mute
Kafka's sentences often deliver an unexpected impact just before the period—that being the finalizing meaning and focus. This is achieved from the construction of sentences in the original German, where the verbs of subordinate clauses are put at the end. For example, in the opening sentence, it is the final word, ''verwandelt'', that indicates transformation:

These constructions are not directly replicable in English, so it is up to the translator to provide the reader with the effect of the original text.

English translators have often sought to render the word ''Ungeziefer'' as "insect", but this is not strictly accurate. In Middle High German+, ''Ungeziefer'' literally means "unclean animal not suitable for sacrifice" and is sometimes used colloquially to mean "bug" – a very general term, unlike the scientific sounding "insect". Kafka had no intention of labeling Gregor as any specific thing, but instead wanted to convey Gregor's disgust at his transformation. The phrasing used by Joachim Neugroschel+ is: "Gregor Samsa found himself, in his bed, transformed into a monstrous vermin", whereas David Wyllie says" "transformed in his bed into a horrible vermin".

However, in Kafka's letter to his publisher of 25 October 1915, in which he discusses his concern about the cover illustration for the first edition, he uses the term ''Insekt'', saying: "The insect itself is not to be drawn. It is not even to be seen from a distance."

''Ungeziefer'' has sometimes been translated as "cockroach+", "dung beetle+", "beetle+", and other highly specific terms. The term "dung beetle" or ''Mistkäfer'' is, in fact, used by the cleaning lady near the end of the story, but it is not used in the narration. ''Ungeziefer'' also denotes a sense of separation between himself and his environment: he is unclean and must therefore be secluded.

Vladimir Nabokov+, who was a lepidopterist+ as well as writer and literary critic, insisted that Gregor was not a cockroach, but a beetle with wings under his shell, and capable of flight. Nabokov left a sketch annotated, "just over three feet long", on the opening page of his (heavily corrected) English teaching copy. In his accompanying lecture notes, Nabokov discusses the type of insect Gregor has been transformed into, concluding that Gregor "is not, technically, a dung beetle. He is merely a big beetle".

* First print: ''Die Verwandlung''. In: ''Die Weißen Blätter+. Eine Monatsschrift.'' (The White Pages. A Monthly). ed. René Schickele+. "Jg. 2" (1915), "H. 10" (October), ps. 1177–1230.
* ''Sämtliche Erzählungen.'' paperback, ed. Paul Raabe. S. Fischer Verlag+, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg 1970. ISBN 3-596-21078-X.
* ''Drucke zu Lebzeiten''. ed. Wolf Kittler, Hans-Gerd Koch and Gerhard Neumann, S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ps. 113-200.
* ''Die Erzählungen.'' (The stories) ed. Roger Herms, original version S. Fischer Verlag 1997 ISBN 3-596-13270-3
* ''Die Verwandlung''. with a commentary by Heribert Kuhn, Suhrkamp Verlag+, Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 978-3-518-18813-2. (Suhrkamp BasisBibliothek, 13: Text und Kommentar)
* ''Die Verwandlung''. Anaconda Verlag+, Köln 2005. ISBN 978-3-938484-13-5.
* ''Metamorphosis''. Hardcover, 2009 New Translation, Arcturus Publishing Limited. Forward by William Aaltonen ISBN 978-1-84837-202-3
* ''The Metamorphosis: A New Translation by Susan Bernofsky''. Paperback, 2014, W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 978-0393347098. David Cronenberg+'s Introduction to the book was also published as "The Beetle and the Fly" in ''The Paris Review''.

There are many film versions of the story, mostly short film+s, including:
* a 1975 TV version by Jan Němec+,
* a 1977 animation+ by Caroline Leaf+,
* a 1987 TV movie by Jim Goddard+ and Steven Berkoff+,
* a 1993 video by Carlos Atanes+, and
*In 1995, the actor Peter Capaldi+, with his short-film ''Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life+'', tied for an Oscar for Live Action Short Film+ with ''Trevor+''. The plot has the author (played by Richard E. Grant+) trying to write the opening line of ''Metamorphosis'' and experimenting with various things that Gregor might turn into, such as a banana or a kangaroo. The film is also notable for a number of Kafkaesque+ moments.
* A Russian version titled ''Prevrashchenie'' (2002) was directed by Valery Fokin+, featuring Yevgeny Mironov+ as Gregor.
*Chris Swanton's film ''Metamorphosis+'' (2012), starring Maureen Lipman+, Robert Pugh+, and Alistair Petrieis the first English, feature-length adaptation of the story.
* A Bulgarian interpretation titled "Die Verwandlung" (2013)

*In the ''Simpsons+'' book ''Treehouse of Horror Spook-tacular'', Matt Groening+ included a spoof+ of ''The Metamorphosis'', entitled "Metamorphosimpsons".
*Jacob M. Appel+'s ''Scouting for the Reaper'' contains a telling of the novella in which a rabbi attempts to arrange a "proper Jewish burial" for Gregor.
*Lance Olsen+'s book, ''Anxious Pleasures: A Novel After Kafka+'', retells Kafka's novella from the points of view of those inside his family and out.
*American cartoonist Robert Crumb+ drew a comic adaptation of the novella, which is included in the 1993 book ''Introducing Kafka+'', an illustrated biography of Kafka also known as ''Kafka for Beginners'', ''R. Crumb's Kafka'', or simply ''Kafka''.
*American comic artist Peter Kuper+ illustrated a graphic-novel version, first published by the Crown Publishing Group+ in 2003.
*Marc Estrin+'s debut surrealist novel, ''Insect Dreams: The Half Life of Gregor Samsa'' (2002), "resurrects Kafka's half-cockroach Gregor character" vis-à-vis the world between 1915 and 1945.
*East Press published a manga+ version of the story in 2008 as part of their Manga de Dokuha+ line.
* 2007's ''Kockroach+'', by William Lashner+ under the name "Tyler Knox", inverts the premise by transforming a cockroach into a human; Lashner has stated that ''the Metamorphosis'' is "the obvious starting point for" ''Kockroach'', and that his choice of pseudonym was made in honor of Josef K (of Kafka's ''the Trial+'')., by Rob Hart, at; published March 1, 2010; retrieved March 10, 2015

*Steven Berkoff+ performed a stage adaptation in 1969. Berkoff's text was also used for the libretto+ to Brian Howard's 1983 opera+ ''Metamorphosis''.
*Another stage adaptation was performed in 2006 as a co-production between the Iceland+ic company Vesturport+ and the Lyric Hammersmith+, adapted and directed by Gísli Örn Garðarsson and David Farr+, with a music soundtrack performed by Nick Cave+ and Warren Ellis. It was also performed at the Sydney Theatre Company+ as part of a world tour in 2009 and returned to the Lyric Hammersmith in January 2013, starring Garðarsson as Gregor Samsa.
*An adapted stage production was devised and directed by Samara Hersch as part of the Helium Season for The Malthouse Theatre+ in October 2014.

*In ''Home Movies+'' episode 1.06, "Director's Cut", Brendon and the crew produce a rock opera musical adaptation of the novel.

*A radio drama, combining ''Metamorphosis'' with Dr. Seuss+ and performed by Jonathan Goldstein+ and Mira Burt-Wintonick+ with Cristal Duhaime, was broadcast in 2008, on CBC Radio One+'s program ''Wiretap+'' in 2008. In 2012, it was broadcast on ''This American Life+''


'''Online editions'''
* at (text, pdf, HTML) de icon:
* , translated 2009 by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College+, Nanaimo, BC+
* , translated by David Wyllie+
* via LibriVox+ (audiobook, Ian Johnston translation)


German literature:

The Metamorphosis+ The Metamorphosis (German: Die Verwandlung, also sometimes translated as The Transformation) is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915. It has been cited as one of the seminal works of fiction of the 20th century and is studied in colleges and universities across the Western world.
The Metamorphosis of Prime Intellect+ The Metamorphosis of Prime Intellect is a 1994 novella by Roger Williams, a computer programmer living in New Orleans.
The O.C. (season 4)+ The fourth and final season of The O.C., an American teen drama television series, aired in the United States from November 2, 2006 to February 22, 2007 and consisted of sixteen episodes.
Metamorphosis of Narcissus+ Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1937) is an oil-on-canvas painting by the Spanish surrealist Salvador Dalí.
The Metamorphosis Melody+ The Metamorphosis Melody is the third studio album by the German Gothic/folk metal band Midnattsol. It was released in 2011 on Napalm Records.