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A bowl of soy sauce with floating wasabi+ paste.
IPA-my|pɛ́ ŋàɴ bjà jè|:
酱油 "sauce oil"
jiàng yóu
"fermented bean oil"
chǐ yóu

ซีอิ๊ว ()
''xì dầu'' '''or''' ''nước tương''

'''Soy sauce''' (also called '''soya sauce''') is a condiment+ made from a fermented+ paste of boiled soybean+s, roasted grain+, brine+, and ''Aspergillus oryzae+'' or ''Aspergillus sojae+'' molds+. It originated in its current form in China in the 2nd century AD and spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment.

Soy sauce originated in China sometime between the 3rd and 5th century from a meat-based fermented sauce named ''jiang'' (). Its use later spread to East and Southeast Asia. Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was originally a way to salt+, historically an expensive commodity. In ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process. Eventually, this was replaced and the recipe for soy sauce, (), using soybeans as the principal ingredient, with fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce+.

Records of the Dutch East India Company+ list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima+, Japan, to Batavia (present-day Jakarta+) on the island of Java+. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were then shipped to the Netherlands. In the 18th century, diplomat and scholar Isaac Titsingh+ published accounts of brewing soy sauce. Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. By the mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce gradually disappeared from the European market, and the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product. Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of ''Aspergillus oryzae+'', the fungus used in its brewing.Tanaka, p. 7. Soy sauce made from ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms+ were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for "''Soija''" was published in the 1770 edition of Cajsa Warg+'s ''Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber'' and was flavored with allspice+ and mace+.

The 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams+ wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, and leaving the mass to ferment; a portion of salt and three times as much water are afterwards put in, and the whole compound left for two or three months when the liquid is pressed and strained".

Soy sauce is made either by fermentation or by hydrolysis+. Some commercial sauces have both fermented and chemical sauces.

Flavor, color, and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic Maillard Browning+.

Variation is usually achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation+, different ratios of water, salt+, and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients.

Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as ''Aspergillus oryzae+'' and other related microorganism+s and yeasts (the resulting mixture is called "koji" in Japan; the term "koji" is used both for the mixture of soybeans, wheat, and mold as well as for the mold itself). Historically, the mixture was fermented naturally in large urns and under the sun, which was believed to contribute extra flavors. Today, the mixture is placed in a temperature and humidity controlled incubation chamber.

Traditional soy sauces take months to make:
#'''Soaking and cooking''': The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled until cooked. Wheat is roasted, crushed.
#'''Koji culturing''': An equal amount of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture. A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself. The cultures include:
#* '''''Aspergillus+''''': a genus+ of fungus that is used for fermenting various ingredients (the cultures are called ''koji'' in Japanese). Three species are used for brewing soy sauce:
#** ''A. oryzae+'': Strains with high proteolytic+ capacity are used for brewing soy sauce.
#** ''A. sojae+'': This fungus also has a high proteolytic capacity.
#** ''A. tamari+'': This fungus is used for brewing tamari, a variety of soy sauce.
#* '''''Saccharomyces cerevisiae+''''': the yeasts in the culture convert some of the sugars to ethanol which can undergo secondary reactions to make other flavor compounds
#*'''Other microbes contained in the culture:
#** ''Bacillus spp''. (genus): This organism is likely to grow soy sauce ingredients, bring to generate odors and ammonia.
#** ''Lactobacillus species'': This organism makes a lactic acid that increases the acidity in the feed.
#'''Brewing''': The cultured grain mixture is mixed into a specific amount of salt brine+ for wet fermentation or with coarse salt for dry fermentation and left to brew. Over time, the Aspergillus mold on the soy and wheat break down the grain proteins into free amino acid and protein fragments and starches into simple sugars. This amino-glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color. Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary fermentation makes numerous flavor compounds typical of soy sauce.
#'''Pressing''': The fully fermented grain slurry is placed into cloth-lined containers and pressed to separate the solids from the liquid soy sauce. The isolated solids are used as fertilizer or fed to animals while the liquid soy sauce is processed further.
#'''Pasteurization''': The raw soy sauce is heated to eliminate any active yeasts and molds remaining in the soy sauce and can be filtered to remove any fine particulates
#'''Storage''': The soy sauce can be aged or directly bottled and sold.

Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid-hydrolyzed+ soy protein+ instead of brewed with a traditional culture. This takes about three days. Although they have a different flavor, aroma, and texture when compared to brewed soy sauces, they have a longer shelf life and are usually made for this reason. The clear plastic packets+ of dark sauce common with Chinese-style take-out food typically use a hydrolyzed vegetable protein formula. Some higher-quality hydrolyzed vegetable protein products with no added salt, sugar or colorings are sold as low-sodium soy sauce alternatives called "liquid aminos" in health food stores, similar to the way salt substitute+s are used. These products are, however, not necessarily low in sodium.

Soy sauce is widely used as an important flavoring and has been integrated into the traditional cuisines+ of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Despite their rather similar appearance, soy sauces made in different cultures and regions are different in taste, consistency, fragrance and saltiness. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight .

Chinese soy sauces (''Mandarin Chinese: jiàng yóu''/''Cantonese: jeong yau'' (|s=) or ''chǐ yóu''/''si yau'' ()) are primarily made from soybean+s, with relatively low amounts of other grains. Chinese soy sauce can be roughly split into two classes: brewed or blended.

Most Chinese food take-out soy sauce (also called soya sauce) in the United States is not really soy sauce; it is not fermented, but is a combination of ingredients, depending on the manufacturer, including corn syrup, water, salt, caramel color, vegetable protein, and sodium benzoate.

*'''Light or fresh soy sauce''' ( ''shēng chōu'' or ''jiàng qīng''): is a thin (low viscosity), opaque, lighter brown soy sauce, brewed by first culturing steamed wheat and soybeans with ''Aspergillus'', and then letting the mixture ferment in brine. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning, since it is saltier, has less noticeable color, and also adds a distinct flavor.
**''Tóu chōu'' (): A light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans, this can be loosely translated as "first soy sauce" or referred to as premium light soy sauce. ''Tóu chōu'' is sold at a premium because, like extra virgin olive oil, the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. Due to its delicate flavor it is used primarily for seasoning light dishes and for dipping.
**''Shuāng huáng'' (): A light soy sauce that is double-fermented by using the light soy sauce from another batch to take the place of brine for a second brewing. This adds further complexity to the flavor of the light soy sauce. Due to its complex flavor this soy sauce is used primarily for dipping.
*'''Yìn yóu''' (): A darker soy sauce brewed primarily in Taiwan by culturing only steamed soybeans with ''Aspergillus'' and mixing the cultured soybeans with coarse rock salt before undergoing prolonged dry fermentation. The flavor of this soy sauce is complex and rich and is used for dipping or in red cooking+. For the former use, yìn yóu can be thickened with starch to make a thick soy sauce.

Additives with sweet or umami (savory) tastes are sometimes added to a finished brewed soy sauce to modify its taste and texture.

*'''Dark and old soy sauce''' ( ''lǎo chōu''), a darker and slightly thicker soy sauce made from light soy sauce. This soy sauce is made through prolonged aging and may contain added caramel color+ and/or molasses+ to give it its distinctive appearance. This variety is mainly used during cooking, since its flavor develops during heating. It has a richer, slightly sweeter, and less salty flavor than light soy sauce. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavor to a dish after cooking, but, as stated above, is more often used during the cooking process, rather than after.
**''Mushroom dark soy'' (
**''Thick soy sauce'' ( and MSG+. This sauce is often used as a dipping sauce+ or finishing sauce and poured on food as a flavorful addition. However, due to its sweetness and caramelized flavors from its production process the sauce is also used in red cooking+.
*'''Shrimp soy sauce''' ( ''Xiā zǐ jiàngyóu''): Fresh soy sauce is simmered with fresh shrimp and finished with sugar, baijiu+ (type of distilled liquor, 白酒), and spices. A specialty of Suzhou+.

Buddhist monks from China introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century, where it is known as .

''Shōyu'' is traditionally divided into five main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Most, but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient, which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry+-like flavor, sometimes enhanced by the addition of small amounts of alcohol as a natural preservative+. The widely varying flavors of these soy sauces are not always interchangeable, some recipes only call for one type or the other, much as a white wine cannot replace a red's flavor or beef stock does not make the same results as fish stock+.

Some soy sauces made in the Japanese way or styled after them contain about 50% wheat.

* |"thick taste": Originating in the Kantō region+, its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of ''koikuchi'', and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. It is made from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. This variety is also called ''kijōyu'' () or ''namashōyu'' () when it is not pasteurized+.
* |"thin taste": Particularly popular in the Kansai+ region of Japan, it is both saltier and lighter in color than ''koikuchi''. The lighter color arises from the use of ''amazake+'', a sweet liquid made from fermented rice, that is used in its production.
* |"white": In contrast to ''tamari'' soy sauce, ''shiro'' soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean, lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food, for example sashimi+.
* |"twice-brewed" : This variety substitutes previously made ''koikuchi'' for the brine normally used in the process. Consequently, it is much darker and more strongly flavored. This type is also known as ''kanro shōyu'' () or "sweet soy sauce".

Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:

* |"reduced salt": This version contains 50% less salt than regular soy sauce for consumers concerned about heart disease.
* |"light salt": This version contains 20% less salt than regular soy sauce.

All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were made:

* : Contains 100% genuine fermented product
* : Contains genuine fermented shōyu mash mixed with 30–50% of chemical or enzymatic+ hydrolysate of plant protein
* : Contains ''Honjōzō'' or ''Kongō-jōzō'' ''shōyu'' mixed with 30–50% of chemical or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein

All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:

* : Standard grade, contains more than 1.2% total nitrogen
* : Upper grade, contains more than 1.35% of total nitrogen
* : Special grade, contains more than 1.5% of total nitrogen

Soy sauce is also commonly known as ''shoyu'', and less commonly ''shōyu'', in Hawaii and Brazil.

In Indonesia+, soy sauce is known as ''kecap'' (old spelling: ''ketjap''), which is a catch-all term for fermented sauces+, and cognate+ to the English word "ketchup+". The most popular type of soy sauce in Indonesian cuisine is ''kecap manis'' or sweet soy sauce+. The term ''kecap'' is also used to describe other non soy-based sauces, such as ''kecap ikan'' (fish sauce+) and ''kecap inggris'' (literally "English ''kecap''", worcestershire sauce+). Three common varieties of soy-based ''kecap'' exist in Indonesian cuisine+, used either as ingredients or condiment+s:

*'''''Kecap manis''''' : Sweetened soy sauce, which has a thick syrupy consistency and a unique, pronounced, sweet somewhat treacle+-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar+. Regular soy with brown sugar and a trace of molasses added can substitute. It is by far, the most popular type of soy sauce employed in Indonesian cuisine+, accounts for an estimated 90 percent of the nation's total soy sauce production. ''Kecap manis'' is an important sauce in Indonesian signature dishes, such as ''nasi goreng+'', ''mie goreng+'', satay+, ''tongseng+'' and ''semur+''. ''Sambal kecap'' for example is type of ''sambal+'' dipping sauce of kecap manis with sliced chili, tomato and shallot, a popular dipping sauce for ''sate kambing'' (goat meat satay) and ''ikan bakar'' (grilled fish/seafood). Since soy sauce is of Chinese origin, ''kecap asin'' is also an important seasoning in Chinese Indonesian cuisine+.
*'''''Kecap manis sedang''''' : Medium sweet soy sauce, which has a less thick consistency, is less sweet and has a saltier taste than ''kecap manis''.
*'''''Kecap asin''''' : Salty soy sauce, which is very similar to regular soy sauce, but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor; it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in some recipes. Salty soy sauce was first introduced into Indonesia by Hokkien people+ so its taste resembles that of Chinese soy sauce. Hakka+ soy sauce made from black beans is very salty and large productions are mainly made in Bangka Belitung+ Islands.

Korean soy sauce, (called ''Joseon ganjang'', 조선간장, in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of ''doenjang+'' (Korean fermented soybean paste+), so ''Bacillus subtilis+'' is used for fermentation. It is mainly used in making soups+, seasoning+, and dip sauce+. ''Joseon ganjang'', thin and dark brown in color, is made entirely of soy and brine, and has a saltiness that varies according to the maker. Wide scale use of ''Joseon ganjang'' has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce, called ''waeganjang'' (hangul: 왜간장/倭간醬). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea, traditional fermented ''ganjang'' comprised only 1.4% of soy sauce purchases.

Burmese soy sauce production is dated back to the Bagan+ era in the 9th and 10th century. Scripts written in praise of ''pe ngan byar yay'' ( Production increased during the Konbaung dynasty+, circa 1700, when there was bolstered migration of ethnic groups from the north to boost and modify the production of silk in Amarapura+. Thick soy sauce is called ''kya nyo'' (, from Chinese ''jiàngyóu''.

In the Philippines, soy sauce is called ''toyò'' in the native languages+, and is a broad term used for both the Japanese ''shōyu'' and Chinese ''jiàngyóu''. Philippine soy sauce is usually a combination of soybeans, wheat, salt, and caramel color. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste than its Southeast Asian counterparts, similar to Japanese variety.

''Toyò'' is used as a marinade, an ingredient in cooked dishes, and most often as a table condiment, usually alongside other sauces such as fish sauce+ (''patís'') and sugar cane vinegar+ (''sukà''). It is often mixed and served with the juice of the calamansi+ (×+ ''Citrofortunella microcarpa''; also called calamondin, ''limonsito''). The combination is known as ''toyomansî'', which can be comparable to the Japanese ''ponzu'' sauce (soy sauce with yuzu+). Toyò is also a main ingredient in ''Philippine adobo+'', one of the more famous dishes of Filipino cuisine.

Soy sauce is a very popular condiment and marinade for many dishes in the Hawaiian cuisine+. ''Aloha shoyu'' is soy sauce made in the Islands.

Malays from Malaysia, using the Malay dialect similar to Indonesian, use the word ''kicap'' for soy sauce. ''Kicap'' is traditionally of two types: ''kicap lemak'' (lit "fat/rich soy sauce") and ''kicap cair''. ''Kicap lemak'' is similar to Indonesian ''kecap manis'' but with very much less sugar while ''kicap cair'' is the Malaysian equivalent of ''kecap asin''.

The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China, in the provinces of Fujian+ and Guangdong+. Taiwanese soy sauce is known for its black bean+ variant, known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油), which takes longer to make (about 6 months). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan make soy sauce from soybeans and wheat. Some make black bean soy sauce.

In Vietnam, Chinese-style soy sauce is called ''xì dầu'' (derived from the Cantonese name 豉油) or ''nước tương''. The term "soy sauce" could also imply other condiments and soy bean paste with thick consistency known as ''tương+''. Both are used mostly as a seasoning or dipping sauce for a number of dishes. Vietnamese cuisine itself favors fish sauce+ in cooking but ''nước tương'' has a clear presence in vegetarian cooking.

A study by the National University of Singapore+ showed that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidant+s of red wine+, and can help prevent cardiovascular disease+s. Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria+ and of excellent anti-allergic potential.

Soy sauce does not contain the level of isoflavone+s associated with other soy products such as tofu+ or edamame+. It can also be very salty+, having a salt content of between 14–18%. Low-sodium soy sauces are made, but it is difficult to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt as an antimicrobial agent.

100ml of soy sauce contains the following nutritional information according to the USDA:
* Calories : 60
* Fat: 0.1 g
* Carbohydrates: 5.57 g
* Fibers: 0.8 g
* Protein: 10.51 g
* Sodium: 6 g

Soy sauce may contain ethyl carbamate+, a Group 2A+ carcinogen+.

In 2001 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency+ found in testing various soy sauces manufactured in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Thailand (made from hydrolyzed soy protein, rather than being naturally fermented) that 22% of tested samples, contained a chemical carcinogen named 3-MCPD+ (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the EU. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second carcinogenic chemical named 1,3-DCP+ (1,3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. 3-MCPD+ and 1,3-DCP+. The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a food scare in 2007+.

In Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society+ writes, "Health Canada+ has concluded that there is no health risk to Canadians from use of available soy and oyster sauces. Because continuous lifetime exposure to high levels of 3-MCPD+ could pose a health risk, Health Canada has established 1.0 part per million (ppm) as a guideline for importers of these sauces, in order to reduce Canadians' long-term exposure to this chemical. This is considered to be a very safe level."

Most varieties of soy sauce contain wheat, to which some people have a medical intolerance. However, some naturally brewed soy sauces made with wheat may be tolerated by people with a specific intolerance to gluten+ because gluten+ is not detectable in the finished product. Japanese tamari soy sauce is traditionally wheat-free, and some tamari available commercially today is wheat- and gluten-free.

* List of fermented soy products+
* List of condiments+

* Titsingh+, Isaac. (1781). "''Bereiding van de Soya"'' ("Producing Soy Sauce"), , Vol. III.

* —on the production of soy sauce

* Commons category-inline:


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